Calibration curves were obtained by using authentic standards (glutamic acid, citric acid, isocitric acid, malic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid
, and lactic acid) spiked in a matrix containing deuterated D4-citric acid as internal standard.
Ryan et al., "Fumaric acid
esters exert neuroprotective effects in neuroinflammation via activation of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway," Brain, vol.
As can be seen from Table 2, molasses hydrolysate includes organic lactic, malic, citric and fumaric acids
. Therefore, the leaching activity of molasses hydrolysate is based on sugar acids rather than on nitric acid.
Fumaric aciduria is a rare congenital metabolic disorder characterized with increased fumaric acid
which occurs as a result of deficiency of fumarase which is one of the enzymes included in the tricarcoxylic acid (Krebs) cycle.
Itaconic acid, fumaric acid
and 1,4-butanediol were purchased from Sigma Aldrich.
Other treatment modalities that have been tried include photochemotherapy, methotrexate, topical calcipotriol, keratolytics, cyclosporine, azathioprine, fumaric acid
esters, extracorporeal photochemotherapy and tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists i.e.
(2000), by including 1.4% of formic acid, 1.8% of fumaric acid
or 2.7% of n-butyric acid in diets for piglets, have verified an increase (p < 0.05) above 6% in the ileal digestibility of protein and several essential and non-essential amino acids
Along with succinic acid and fumaric acid
it belongs to the group of C4 dicarboxylic acids.
Analysis of organic acids: The standards used in organic acid analyses (succinic acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, fumaric acid
and citric acid) were obtained from Sigma company (St.
(5) has studied the polyesterification of adipic and fumaric acid
(FA) with ethylene glycol), (both in the absence and presence of a foreign acid and subsequently attempted to fit the data to a number of models.
, an antibacterial component of Aloe vera L.
(1.) Oliveira, MP, Giordani, DS, Santos, AM, "The Role of Itaconic and Fumaric Acid
in the Emulsion Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate and n-Butyl Acrylate." Eur.