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A glycosylated protein; levels assayed in veterinary medicine to monitor control of diabetes mellitus. Used particularly in felines because cortisol-induced glucose swings are associated with stress of sampling for point assay of blood glucose levels. F. levels are monitored to assay average glycemic control.
fructosamineDiabetology Fructose with an bound amine group, the serum levels of which reflect the degree of glycation of serum proteins; fructosamine levels reflect glycemic control over a period of 2-3 wks. See Glycosylated hemoglobin.
Synonym/acronym: Glycated albumin.
To assist in assessing long-term glucose control in diabetes.
SpecimenSerum (1 mL) collected in a gold-, red-, or red/gray-top tube.
|Status||Conventional Units||SI Units (Conventional Units × 0.01)|
|Normal||174–286 micromol/L||1.74–2.86 mmol/L|
|Diabetic (values vary with degree of control)||210–563 micromol/L||2.10–5.63 mmol/L|
Fructosamine is the result of a covalent linkage between glucose and albumin or other proteins. Similar to glycated hemoglobin, fructosamine can be used to monitor long-term control of glucose in diabetics. It has a shorter half-life than glycated hemoglobin and is thought to be more sensitive to short-term fluctuations in glucose concentrations. Some glycated hemoglobin methods are affected by hemoglobin variants. Fructosamine is not subject to this interference.
This procedure is contraindicated for
- Evaluate diabetic control
- Diabetic patients with poor glucose control
- Severe hypoproteinemia
- Drugs that may increase fructosamine levels include bendroflumethiazide and captopril.
- Drugs that may decrease fructosamine levels include ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, and terazosin.
- Decreased albumin levels may result in falsely decreased fructosamine levels.
Nursing Implications and Procedure
- Positively identify the patient using at least two unique identifiers before providing care, treatment, or services.
- Patient Teaching: Inform the patient this test can assist in evaluating blood sugar control.
- Obtain a history of the patient’s complaints, especially related to diabetic control. Obtain a list of known allergens, especially allergies or sensitivities to latex.
- Obtain a history of the patient’s endocrine and gastrointestinal systems, symptoms, and results of previously performed laboratory tests and diagnostic and surgical procedures.
- Obtain a list of the patient’s current medications, including herbs, nutritional supplements, and nutraceuticals (see Effects of Natural Products on Laboratory Values).
- Review the procedure with the patient. Inform the patient that specimen collection takes approximately 5 to 10 min. Address concerns about pain and explain that there may be some discomfort during the venipuncture.
- Sensitivity to social and cultural issues, as well as concern for modesty, is important in providing psychological support before, during, and after the procedure.
- Note that there are no food, fluid, or medication restrictions unless by medical direction.
- Potential complications: N/A
- Avoid the use of equipment containing latex if the patient has a history of allergic reaction to latex.
- Instruct the patient to cooperate fully and to follow directions. Direct the patient to breathe normally and to avoid unnecessary movement.
- Observe standard precautions, and follow the general guidelines in Patient Preparation and Specimen Collection. Positively identify the patient, and label the appropriate specimen container with the corresponding patient demographics, initials of the person collecting the specimen, date, and time of collection. Perform a venipuncture.
- Remove the needle and apply direct pressure with dry gauze to stop bleeding. Observe/assess venipuncture site for bleeding or hematoma formation and secure gauze with adhesive bandage.
- Promptly transport the specimen to the laboratory for processing and analysis.
- Inform the patient that a report of the results will be made available to the requesting health-care provider (HCP), who will discuss the results with the patient.
- Nutritional Considerations: Abnormal fructosamine levels may be associated with conditions resulting from poor glucose control. There is no “diabetic diet”; however, many meal-planning approaches with nutritional goals are endorsed by the American Dietetic Association. Patients who adhere to dietary recommendations report a better general feeling of health, better weight management, greater control of glucose and lipid values, and improved use of insulin. Instruct the patient, as appropriate, in nutritional management of diabetes. The 2013 Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk published by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) in conjunction with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recommends a “Mediterranean”-style diet rather than a low-fat diet. The new guideline emphasizes inclusion of vegetables, whole grains, fruits, low-fat dairy, nuts, legumes, and nontropical vegetable oils (e.g., olive, canola, peanut, sunflower, flaxseed) along with fish and lean poultry. A similar dietary pattern known as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet makes additional recommendations for the reduction of dietary sodium. Both dietary styles emphasize a reduction in consumption of red meats, which are high in saturated fats and cholesterol, and other foods containing sugar, saturated fats, trans fats, and sodium. If triglycerides also are elevated, the patient should be advised to eliminate or reduce alcohol. The nutritional needs of each diabetic patient need to be determined individually (especially during pregnancy) with the appropriate HCPs, particularly professionals trained in nutrition.
- Instruct the patient and caregiver to report signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia (weakness, confusion, diaphoresis, rapid pulse) or hyperglycemia (thirst, polyuria, hunger, lethargy).
- Recognize anxiety related to test results, and be supportive of perceived loss of independence and fear of shortened life expectancy. Discuss the implications of abnormal test results on the patient’s lifestyle. Provide teaching and information regarding the clinical implications of the test results, as appropriate. Emphasize, if indicated, that good glycemic control delays the onset and slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Educate the patient regarding access to counseling services, as appropriate. Provide contact information, if desired, for the American Diabetes Association (www.diabetes.org) or the American Heart Association (www.americanheart.org).
- Reinforce information given by the patient’s HCP regarding further testing, treatment, or referral to another HCP. Answer any questions or address any concerns voiced by the patient or family.
- Depending on the results of this procedure, additional testing may be performed to evaluate or monitor progression of the disease process and determine the need for a change in therapy. Evaluate test results in relation to the patient’s symptoms and other tests performed.
- Related tests include CT cardiac scoring, cortisol, C-peptide, fecal fat, fluorescein angiography, fundus photography, gastric emptying scan, glucagon, glucose, GTT, glycated hemoglobin, insulin, insulin antibodies, intraocular pressure, ketones, microalbumin, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and visual fields testing.
- Refer to the Endocrine and Gastrointestinal systems tables at the end of the book for related tests by body system.