It is well established that the enzyme fructokinase
, would phosphorylate the surplus fructose absorbed from the intestine.
A key player in the process appears to be an enzyme in the liver known as fructokinase
, which metabolizes fructose so rapidly that it causes ATP depletion.
Cicerchi et al., "Uric acid stimulates fructokinase
and accelerates fructose metabolism in the development of fatty liver," PLoS ONE, vol.
However, muscle cell does not express fructokinase
, and the high value of Km of hexokinase for fructose suggests that this pathway is not critical for fructose metabolism .
Perna et al., "Liver AMP/ATP ratio and fructokinase
expression are related to gender differences in AMPK activity and glucose intolerance in rats ingesting liquid fructose," Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol.
activity mediates dehydration-induced renal injury.
Hormonal induction of phospho fructokinase
in the rat uterus.
The mechanism is not fully understood but it is known that fructose-1-phosphate (a metabolite formed in the liver by fructokinase
that phosphorylates quickly fructose, using a molecule of ATP), has the ability to dissociate glucokinase from glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP).
High-fat and high-sucrose (western) diet induces steatohepatitis that is dependent on fructokinase
. Hepatology 2013;58:1632-43.
Fructose is metabolized by fructokinase
, an enzyme that has two isoforms: fructokinase
A and fructokinase
The isozyme alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzes in the microorganism the reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol; however when fructose is not efficiently phosphorylated by fructokinase
, both enzymes depend on the sugar in the culture.
It has been suggested that this effect is linked to increased uric acid levels produced by fructokinase