However, after treatment with quetiapine, manic BD patients showed a reduction in the lactate levels in the medial frontal cortex
, with patients who responded to the treatment presenting higher decrease (71).
The neurotransmitter dopamine regulates motivation and self-restraint in the frontal cortex
and anterior cingulate (Tucker, Luu & Pribram 1995).
The frontal cortex
appears to be important for reasoning and problem solving, but other areas seem critical for these higher functions, as well.
LeDoux concedes that the frontal cortex
and hippocampus are engaged in some kind of "feedback loop" which can influence events at the amygdala, (and even suggests that further evolution may strengthen cortical control over the amygdala), thus giving scientific support to the idea that a "thalamic/cortical" pause could be an effective way of lowering stress hormone levels in the brain.
"At the same time, we saw the recovery of glutamate receptor expression and function in the frontal cortex
Increased amyloid deposition was not found in other areas associated with the disease, but frontal cortex
involvement "does suggest perhaps a common" denominator, she noted.
This exercise, used by them in earlier studies, showed that people are forced to occupy the frontal cortex
with complex activities and they did better than those who used their entire brains.
The drug also affected the inferior frontal cortex
, striatum, and anterior cingulate.
Ellman's colorimetric analysis revealed that G1 and C4 AChE isoforms activities were markedly inhibited (66 and 72%, respectively) in hippocampus and frontal cortex
(50 and 63%, respectively), while G4 appeared to be selectively inhibited (72%) in the striatum.
Low serotonin levels are linked to depression, which is regulated in the frontal cortex
. The spinal cord serves as the link between pain in the body and the parts of the brain (frontal cortex
) responsible for pain perception end modulation.
And the scans showed less activity in the part of the brain - the orbital frontal cortex
- that helps make long-term plans.
In another finding, a video of Fred Thompson promoted activity in the superior temporal sulcus and the inferior frontal cortex
, "both areas involved in empathy," reported the researchers.