where the vowels stood originally before the fricative
[y], earlier than before the fricative
[x], which seems to be proved by the surviving spellings containing the cluster <gh>.
In the present article we represent affricates as a sequence of stop plus (homorganic) fricative
According to his amendment, voicing operated only when the fricative
stood in the syllable directly following another syllable with a stressed vowel.
Also, it would be consonant with the working hypothesis to predict that a voiced glottal fricative
was added to the system (or rather elevated to acquire phonemic status).
Several participants were speakers of varieties of Standard Dutch in which all fricatives
tend to be realized as voiceless.
Tristram refrains from detailed speculation about the Danelaw pronunciation in Old English times, but notes that the eventual development of /r/ in that area in modern times has been the apico-(post)alveolar approximant or fricative
o]--total absence of airflow) and a fricative
The development of Indo-Iranian palatals to fricatives
, one of the oldest isoglottic splits among the Iranian languages, is rather poorly represented in Gurgani, as is the case in most other NW Iranian languages.
Burst noise is produced at the consonant place of articulation (like fricative
noise), whereas aspiration noise is produced at the glottis.
The standard view concerning the voiced velar fricative
should be sustained.
They included rhotacism, characteristic of the whole Northwest Germanic subbranch, the West Germanic voicing of the dental fricative
*[theta] and its subsequent occlusion in clusters with a nasal and a liquid (l[theta] > ld, n[theta] > nd), as well as voicing of medial voiceless fricatives
(f, [theta], s), and finally, loss of the voiceless velar fricative
*[chi] in medial position.
Iraqw orthography is phonemic and uses / for the voiced pharyngeal obstruent, hh for its voiceless counterpart, `for glottal stop, hl for the voiceless lateral fricative
, y for the glide, ch for the voiceless palatal affricate, q for the voiceless uvular stop, x for the voiceless velar stop, ng for the nasal velar, ts for the voiceless ejective alveolar affricate, and tl for the voiceless ejective palatal affricate with lateral release.