According to Mary Ann Clawson in Constructing Brotherhood Class, Gender and Fraternalism
, the answers lie in the vortex of class, race and gender in the history of American capitalism.
This is important because a significant strand in Taillon's explanation of the culture and its institutional expression in the brotherhoods depends on the exceptionalism of the Civil War experience, a factor which is deployed to make sense not only of racism and political attitudes, but of fraternalism
, mutual insurance, and manliness as well.
Beito (2000) adduces one piece of evidence after another to show that in the first decades of the twentieth century, the poorest part of the population benefited the most from fraternalism
Perhaps anticipating how Protestant portrayals of Catholic faith as incompatible with American patriotism might be extended to Catholic fraternalism
, Knights countered that Catholic fraternalism
actually contributed to patriotic loyalty.
Weitzman (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998), 68-84; Mari Jo Buhle, Women and American Socialism, 1870-1920 (Urbana: Indiana University Press, 1981); Mary Ann Clawson, Constructing Brotherhood: Class, Gender, and Fraternalism
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989); Temma Kaplan, "Women and Spanish Anarchism," in Becoming Visible: Women in European History, ed.
Even more devastating for the cooperative movement, Blanke argues, was an ideological shift within the national Grange organization after 1875 toward greater local autonomy, a shift that "may have fostered greater fraternalism
Though there is little evidence of regional consciousness in Hood's behavior and writings nor of tensions between the North Carolina lodges and their northern elders, further studies of southern fraternalism
may reveal a regional distinctiveness and perhaps, as with the churches, disputes over resources and relative power within institutional structures that straddled the regions.
Carnes, Secret Ritual and Manhood in Victorian America (New Haven CT: Yale University Press, 1989), Mary Ann Clawson, Constructing Brotherhood: Class, Gender and Fraternalism
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989), and David Hackett, "Gender and Religion in American Culture, 1870-1930," Religion and American Culture, Vol.
Yet the outdoorsy fraternalism
of this all-American bard is evoked at the final blackout, when the play offers a Whitman-esque vision of nude bathers united in a baptismal brotherhood.
177) But such hints of small success stories prove unconvincing, coming without detail or analysis, at the end of a whole book explaining how the union's long history of fraternalism
deterred it from welcoming women.
The brotherhood welcomed all racial and religious groups, infusing their fraternalism
with a strong dose of Christianity and social liberalism.
This suggests, for example, that where employers are highly dependent on employees and employees have a corresponding ability to resist the exercise of employer prerogative, a `strategy' of fraternalism
will inevitably result.