Most anomalies were evident in the four-chamber view
plane of the TUI display, and the rest were diagnosed in the outflow tract planes.
LVEF was calculated using a modified Simpson's method from the apical four-chamber view
and 'swing technique' (FAST) echo because of breast implants and emphysema could not localise pneumothorax.
LV dimensions and LVEF were measured in parasternal long axis view, and TAPSE of the RV lateral wall was measured in apical four-chamber view
, all of them were acquired by M-mode.
However, TTE performs poorly in observing the structure of the heart close to spine, and moreover it can be affected by factors such as thickness of chest wall and obesity.11,12 Measuring the maximum diameter of the heart using TTE through four-chamber view
and subcostal view is subject to be interfered by lung energy.
(d) Apical four-chamber view
of the TTE showed decreased left ventricular chamber size pressured by enlarged right ventricle.
Measurement of RV End diastolic Area in Apical Four-chamber View
for Calculating RV Fractional Area Change
Some of the views it provides are the aortic arch view, the three vessels and trachea view, left and right ventricular outflow tract views and the four-chamber view
, among others.
The two-dimensional apical four-chamber view
was used to calculate left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) according to biplane modified Simpson's rule.
Tissue Doppler in apical four-chamber view
with tissue tracking (left).
These include the mid-esophageal four-chamber view
, right ventricular inflow-outflow tract view, trans-gastric short axis and deep trans-gastric views.
Caption: FIGURE 1: (a) Transthoracic echocardiogram apical four-chamber view
in diastole showing a large thrombus (asterisk) extending from the right atrium to the left atrium via a patent foramen ovale (arrow).