In Emma, Jane's fosterage
by the Dixons and Frank's adoption by his late mother's family also suggest the spectrum of arrangements that comprised de facto adoption (as well as Austen's persistent interest in the topic).
While Pearse was alone in promoting the concept of fosterage
as a metaphor for a more enlightened teacher-pupil relationship, his identification of schooling as 'fostering ...
', number 5 in the six-part sequence of related lyrics titled 'Singing School', first appeared in North (1975) and is dedicated to Irish novelist Michael McLaverty, who was Headmaster of St Thomas's Intermediate School, Belfast, when Heaney taught there in 1962-63.
(32) Meanwhile, adoption did not exist in civil law: Chilean family law recognized only ties of "blood," to invoke contemporary parlance, and not those based on fosterage
or other forms of fictive or spiritual kinship.
Conversely, the distinction between adoption and fosterage
was, and continues to be, much more fluid than in American practice, particularly where economic, work/subsistence, or child preference reasons prompt the child's transfer from one family to another.
The meanings attached to child fosterage
and the circulation of children between the homes of their parents, grandparents, and other kin and the implication of child circulation for future fertility considerations have persistently been raised by anthropological demographers (Bledsoe and Isiugo-Abanihe 1989; Page 1989; Caldwell 1982).
It is unclear, however, whether the costs of abortion increased in the 1980s compared with the cost of bearing a child outside marriage or of other pregnancy resolutions (e.g., adoption or fosterage
In-law ties are weak to begin with; only in the next generation, through sister's-son fosterage
, do two peoples come close together, perhaps even ideally close.
This cemented relations between them, and no chieftain would wage war on a clan where the kid was in fosterage
. One can only speculate what such an arrangement between Protestants and Catholics might do for Northern Ireland today.
Jack Goody (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1971), 331-45; Caroline Bledsoe, "The Politics of Children: Fosterage
and the Social Management of Fertility among the Mende of Sierra Leone," Births and Power: Social Change and the Politics of Reproduction, ed.
No longer related to the family by blood, he stands to them "in the mystical kinship of fosterage
" (P, p.