In turn, rural women's willingness to receive the "children of Providence" may be explained not only by the wage they earned but also by their cultural familiarity with wet nursing and fosterage
Conversely, the distinction between adoption and fosterage
was, and continues to be, much more fluid than in American practice, particularly where economic, work/subsistence, or child preference reasons prompt the child's transfer from one family to another.
Jack Goody (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1971), 331-45; Caroline Bledsoe, "The Politics of Children: Fosterage
and the Social Management of Fertility among the Mende of Sierra Leone," Births and Power: Social Change and the Politics of Reproduction, ed.
While the author, quite subtly, draws the reader's attention to this, this book would have benefited from a robust distinction between Yoruba and non-Yoruba routes to childhood prostitution and the cultural differences that prevented exploitative child fosterage
or proxy marriages among the Yoruba while simultaneously protecting non-Yoruba girls from risks associated with hawking.
Noting that adoption is usually a movement of children from lower to higher-status families, they examine the influence of the characteristics of children, governmental policies, and race, ethnicity, and racism in adoption and fosterage
systems in the US, ending with a chapter on transnational adoption.
The solution found in Muslim societies is not termed << adoption >> but is then rather called << fosterage
>> or some form of family arrangement for transferring the custody of a child.
2003 "Denying Biological Parenthood: Fosterage
in Northern Benin".
Dhuhl who was one of the ahl al-dawla, likewise had ties of fosterage
with the caliphs, though they are never explicitly characterized as Abna'.
Thus in her comprehensive discussions of marital alliance, for example, one never encounters a real case of premarital sex and subsequent pregnancy - perhaps pushing enraged parents and other relatives into accepting a marriage otherwise not contemplated, perhaps prompting adoption or fosterage
Non-relatives and more distant relatives tend to see fosterage
in terms of assistance and a net material return (Caldwell, Caldwell, Ankrah, et al.
Chapter five employs the marital contracts and other sources to examine the practices of fosterage
, adoption and godparenthood.
(Goody 2007) and animal fosterage
(by humans and by other animals) have more than a little in common.