In vitro susceptibility of six isolates of equine herpesvirus 1 to acyclovir, ganciclovir, cidofovir, adefovir, PMEDAP and foscarnet
. Veterinary Microbiology, v.122, p.
Portale, "Foscarnet-induced hypocalcemia and effects of foscarnet
on calcium metabolism," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.
For Zone 1 disease, intensive administration of intravitreal ganciclovir and/or foscarnet
given concomitantly with systemic antiviral has been suggested .
The reported clinical case is about a patient who developed CMV/EBV ventriculoencephalitis that, despite the virological response to antiviral therapy with ganciclovir and foscarnet
, evolved to EBV-driven B cell lymphoproliferative disorder that is considered a "grey disorder" (neither benign nor malignant) that usually evolves to PCNSL .
Intravitreal pharmacokinetics and retinal concentrations of ganciclovir and foscarnet
after intravitreal administration in rabbits.
The most commonly used and current gold standard initial treatment for ARN is acyclovir; other antiviral options including valacyclovir, famciclovir, ganciclovir, valganciclovir, and foscarnet
are also used.
These methods allow early identification of infected cells by CMV and guide the use of preemptive treatment with antiviral drugs, such as ganciclovir or foscarnet
. Quantitative PCR has been increasingly used instead of antigenemia since it is far more sensitive and does not have the limitation of the number of neutrophils in blood, allowing detection of CMV before engraftment.
Ganciclovir (Cytovene[R]), valganciclovir (Valcyte[R]), and foscarnet
(Foscavir[R]) are used to treat CMV infections, including cytomegalovirus retinitis.
Other than HAART, there are three systemic drugs approved for the treatment of CMV: ganciclovir or its prodrug valganciclovir, foscarnet
, and cidofovir.
Though data is sparse, intravenous foscarnet
is the agent of choice in cases of acyclovir-resistant herpetic infection; however even dual-agent therapy has proven ineffective in preventing mortality in previous case reports .
The treatment was changed to intravenous foscarnet
given for two weeks, whereafter the patient was discharged on oral valganciclovir 450 mg twice daily (BD).