"Th' enemy's formin
' over there for another charge," he said.
This GTPase recruits and stimulates mDia formins , which in turn also activate the Arp2/3 complex (Figure 3).
Chavrier, "A role for mammalian diaphanousrelated formins in complement receptor (CR3)-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages," Current Biology, vol.
These parallel actin filaments are mainly elongated at their barbed-end by formins
and cross-linked by bundling proteins such as fascins.We aim to: 1) Elucidate how formin
and fascin functions are regulated by mechanics at the single filament level.
: Actin nucleators that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics during spermatogenesis," Spermatogenesis 5(2).
Polymerization of nonfilamentous (G-) actin into filamentous (F-) actin and actin patch formation requires numerous signaling molecules such as the ARP2/3 complex, Cdc42 and formins (Ma et al., 1998; Evangelista et al., 2002; Nishimura and Mabuchi, 2003; Gunst, 2004; Zigmond, 2004).
Formins are large multi-domain proteins required for the assembly of straight actin filaments found in the cytokinetic contractile ring, yeast actin cables, adherens junctions between epithelial cells and filopodial protrusions (Chang et al., 1997; Feierbach and Chang, 2001; Evangelista et al., 2002; Pruyne et al., 2002; Sagot et al., 2002; Severson et al., 2002; Kovar et al., 2003; Kobielak et al., 2004; Pellegrin and Mellor, 2005; Schirenbeck et al., 2005); observations on both fixed and live [fmn2.sub.-/-] oocytes suggested that formin-2 is required for spindle migration in mouse oocytes (Leader et al., 2002; Dumont et al., 2007).
Formins are critical for actin-based cellular processes.
Bezanilla and colleagues systematically silenced the many actin-regulating formins and determined which members of this protein family are needed to generate cells for proper tip growth.ther tools in the researchers' kit are methods for re-introducing the silenced genes, either normal or modified versions.
are conserved actin-nucleating proteins that are involved in cytokinesis and cell polarity.
Actin polymerization is regulated by actin nucleators, including the formins
, actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex, and spire [6-8].
The researchers studied proteins called formins
that help determine the shape of a cell during division and movement.