Crustose lichens in the studied area grew less than a millimeter and their height cannot be measured with a ruler, but the mean height of foliose
lichens was 15 mm (Standard Error 1.0 mm), and for fruticose it was 82 mm (Standard Error 7.0 mm).
Caption: Figures 12-19.--Appearance of trees with noticeable lack of liehen cover (12 18) and typical appcarance of damaged thallus of foliose
thallus is represented with 16% (11 species), 10% for fruticose (8 species) and 4% for composite species (3 species).
Sample 6d: foliose
lichen on a rock; slides SMLA 15029-15030.
Erect rigid branching or foliose
colonies may grow even faster, at 7 to 20 mm/y (mean = 11.0 mm/y with outliers removed; n = 6).
Drake's Seat, Saint Thomas: two females (foliose
that is, the spiny leaves of the long shoots, the foliose
leaves of the short shoots, and the cataphylls.
Pseudobulb 1-leaved, light green, ellipsoid to oblong-ovoid, strongly compressed, smooth but turning rough with age, 1.5-3 cm x 1-1.5 cm; covered at the base by 2-4 foliose
, articulated, overlapping sheaths, with a blade similar to the leaves, the sheath 1.5-2 cm long, the blade 1.5-5.5 x 0.6-1.2 cm.
The damaged young leaves and young stems dried and abscinded on those genera, as they often did on Melaleuca, but there were fewer leaves on nontarget plants than on the longer, foliose
shoots of the target weed.
Bechtel, R., Rivard, B., and Sanchez-Azofeifa, A., 2002, Spectral properties of foliose
and crustose lichens based on laboratory experiments: Remote Sensing of the Environment, v.
lichens were collected from a stone fence in Sani Pass (SP), Lesotho and from Acacia trees at Hluhluwe-Imfolozi Game Park (HGP) and Tala Private Game Reserve (TPGR) in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.
Among structureforming invertebrates, the volcanic outcrop also harbors high densities of barrel, flat, foliose
, and vase sponges, gorgonian corals, the large anemone Metridium sp., basketstars, and the deep-water antipatharian coral Antipathes dendrochristos.