Another study has shown that after noise trauma, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/ mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) also induces a mitochondrial cell death pathway through the stimulation and translocation of Bax and procaspases, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the damage cell cytoplasm, and lastly, the cleavage of fodrin
by activating caspases .
Kawashima, "Degradation of fodrin
by m-calpain in fibroblasts adhering to fibrillar collagen I gel," The Journal of Biochemistry, vol.
The formation of micronucleus and lobed nucleus erythrocyte in our study could also be due to higher production of caspase activated DNase leading to cleavage of cytoskeletal (vimentin, gelsolin and fodrin
) and nuclear proteins as a result of oxidative stress to mitochondrion (Hussain et al., 2014).
Huppertz, "Caspases rather than calpains mediate remodelling of the fodrin
skeleton during human placental trophoblast fusion," Cell Death and Differentiation, vol.
Caspase-3 is one of the key executioners of apoptosis, capable of cleaving or degrading many key proteins including nuclear lamins, fodrin
as well as PARP (Lawen 2003).
Loss of overall cell shape is probably due to the cleavage of cytoskeletal proteins such as fodrin
and gelsolin (Kothakota, 1997) and finally the plasma membrane blebbing seems to be caused by the cleavage of PAK2, a member of the p21-activated kinases family (Rudel and Bokoch, 1997).
Immunolocalization of the fodrin
, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin adhesion complex in infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast-comparison with an in vitro model.
On the molecular level, plectin binds to a variety of cytoskeletal proteins, including cytoplasmic and nuclear IF subunit proteins (vimentin, GFAP, cytokeratins, neuro-filament proteins, lamin B), subplasma membrane proteins (fodrin
and [Alpha]-spectrin), and high molecular weight microtubule-associated proteins MAP1 and MAP2 (Herrmann and Wiche, 1987; Foisner et al., 1988; Wiche et al., 1993).
This is further characterised by a decrease in the activation of calpains, proteases that cleave fodrin
, and striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatases that trigger major cell death signaling pathways .
This oxidative damage also pledges the apoptotic changes like production of fodrin
proteins and cleavage of cytoskeleton gelsolin and increased caspase activated DNase (CAD) in the nucleus which is responsible for the degradation, breakdown and disintegration of nuclear lamins proteins (Fernandes et al., 2007).
Caspase-3 action occurs downstream in the apoptotic pathway and involves in cleaving important substrates such as gelsolin, fodrin
, actin, and poly ADP-ribose (Todor et al., 2002).
Adler, "The immunogenic SigA enterotoxin of Shigella flexneri 2a binds to HEp-2 cells and induces fodrin
redistribution in intoxicated epithelial cells," PLoS One, vol.