focal nodular hyperplasia


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

hyperplasia

 [hi″per-pla´zhah]
abnormal increase in volume of a tissue or organ caused by the formation and growth of new normal cells. See also hypertrophy and proliferation. adj., adj hyperplas´tic.
benign prostatic hyperplasia benign prostatic hypertrophy.
cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia a group of benign cutaneous disorders characterized by accumulations of large numbers of lymphocytes and histiocytes in the skin, which may occur as a reaction to insect bites, allergy hyposensitization injections, light, trauma, or a tattoo pigment or may be of unknown etiology.
focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) a benign, usually asymptomatic tumor of the liver, occurring chiefly in women; it is a firm, nodular, highly vascular mass resembling cirrhosis, usually with a stellate fibrous core containing numerous small bile ducts, and having vessels lined by Kupffer cells.
nodular hyperplasia of the prostate benign prostatic hypertrophy.

focal nodular hyperplasia

A relatively common (±1% of general population) benign lesion that develops spontaneously at age 20–30, predominantly in females, and not associated with oral contraceptives. If multiple (1/3 are multiple), it may be associated with vascular defects in other organs and brain (arteriovenous malformations).

Focal nodular hyperplasia
Primary FNH
• Congenital arterial malformation.
Secondary FNH
• Acquired vascular abnormalities;
• Cirrhosis;
• Haemangioma;
• Other neoplasms;
• Venous thrombosis.
Typical FNH
• Cirrhosis-like changes;
• Chronic biliary disease with bile duct loss;
• Adjacent space-occupying lesion.
Atypical FNH
• Large cell atypia;
• Mixed hyperplastic and adenomatous;
• No central scar, especially in lesions  < 1cm;
• No prominent ductular reaction;
• Telangiectatic.

Clinical findings
Generally asymptomatic; larger lesions may undergo infarction.

Imaging
Nodular lesion with central scar.

Management
Generally conservative management; indications for surgery uncertain.
References in periodicals archive ?
CT and MR imaging findings in focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
Evaluation of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia with contrast-enhanced gray scale harmonic Sonography: initial experience.
Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: MR findings in 35 proved cases.
Atypical focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: imaging features of nonspecific and liver-specific MR contrast agents.
Diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver by needle biopsy.
Histologic scoring of liver biopsy in focal nodular hyperplasia with atypical presentation.
Immunohistochemical markers on needle biopsies are helpful for the diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma subtypes.
C, Focal nodular hyperplasia with intact reticulin, maplike glutamine synthetase (brown), and negative for glypican-3 on tissue microarray, and on whole tissue section (D).
B, Focal nodular hyperplasia with diffuse glutamine synthetase staining (brown).
Hemangiomas with localized nodular proliferation of the liver: a suggestion on the pathogenesis of focal nodular hyperplasia.
Arterialization of the liver causes baro-injury in cirrhosis and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH).
Epitheliold hemangioendothelioma, multiple focal nodular hyperplasias, and cavernous hemangiomas of the liver.