The Focal Dystonias
: current views and challenges for future.
(5) Focal dystonia
in musicians: treatment strategies and long-term outcome in 144 patients.
Some studies have shown it to develop after injury to specific areas of brain like basal ganglia, thalamus and hypothalamus;5-7 while others claim it to develop as a result of additional complication of spasticity after stroke.8 Although exact mechanism is still not understood, all theories have consensus that there is maladaptive plasticity that occurs in the brain resulting in development of focal dystonia
.9 In the past not much attention has been given to treat this disabling motor complication of stroke.
(4) Surround inhibition phenomena are normal in focal dystonia
when applying PAS-induced sensory-motor plasticity protocol
Abnormal co-contraction in yips-affected but not unaffected golfers: evidence for focal dystonia
Zoubos, "Posttraumatic focal dystonia
of the shoulder," Orthopedics, vol.
is the most common form of primary dystonia, which includes blepharospasm, cervical, focal hand, laryngeal, and oromandibular dystonias, among other forms.[sup],
The contract is for gradual delivery of drugs to drug programs: the treatment of multiple sclerosis, treatment of focal dystonia
and half spasm facial treatment and transfusions of immunoglobulin in neurological diseases.
It is highly effective in focal dystonia
like cervical dystonia and blepharospasm hemifacial spasm.
Neurophysiological evidence for cerebellar dysfunction in primary focal dystonia
. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry.
While dysphonia resulting from a focal dystonia
is usually laryngeal in origin, voice teachers and singers need to be aware of other focal dystonias
that may affect singing.
Cervical dystonia (CD), the most common form of late-onset focal dystonia
, is characterized by sustained or intermittent neck muscle contractions causing abnormal head movements and postures [2, 3].