fluid replacement

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fluid replacement

Administration of liquids to a patient by any route to correct volume and electrolyte deficits. The deficit may be physiological, as when a ballplayer sweats excessively without rehydrating on a hot day. It may be pathological, as in traumatic or septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, severe vomiting or diarrhea or both. It may be metabolic, as in diabetic ketosis or adrenal insufficiency. See: intravenous infusion for illus; central venous catheter; central line; intravenous infusion; oral rehydration therapy; solution

The goal of fluid replacement is to correct electrolyte, fluid, and acid-base imbalances. The oral route of replacement is used if possible. The intravenous, intraperitoneal, or subcutaneous routes are also used, with the intravenous route being used most frequently. Fluids may be isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic; may contain certain crystalloids (e.g., sodium, potassium, chloride, or calcium); or may contain osmotically active substances (e.g., glucose, protein, starch, or a synthetic plasma volume expander such as dextran or hetastarch). The composition, rate of administration, and route depend on the clinical condition being treated.


A critically ill patient receiving fluid replacement should be monitored frequently to be certain that fluid overload is prevented and that the solution is flowing and not extravasating. This is esp. important in treating infants, small children, and the elderly.
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
In women, LV fluid replacement maintains euhydration, but an increased fluid intake (HV) raises the risk of body mass gain and gastrointestinal discomfort.
Because many elderly suffer from cardiac problems, they are particularly prone to volume overload and need careful monitoring during fluid replacement.
Table 1 provides a summary of the volume and composition of the fluid ingested during the warm-up as well as the fluid replacement values.
Experience has proven and current research now supports the theory that sodium replenishment and fluid replacement are the keys to the prevention of cramping.
Once the blood glucose level approaches 250 mg/dL, 5% dextrose should be added to the fluid replacement regimen.
In cases of severe hypotension not responding to fluid replacement, the protocol called for giving 100 mg of cortisol intravenously.
An easy-to-mix fluid replacement can be made by parents from items most have in their kitchens "Grandma's Oral Rehydration Recipe" (see box).
Plasters, fluid replacement sachets, paracetamol, antihistamines, antacids, anti-diarrhoeals, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory creams and anti-nausea tablets.
The kidney needs fluid replacement and if not given adequate amount of fluids the kidney will go into acute renal shutdown.
There was no other fluid replacement preparation available on the plane.
Because rapid fluid replacement with hypotonic solutions carries an increased risk of cerebral edema, the consensus statement urged slower fluid-deficit correction with isotonic or near-isotonic solutions, which achieve earlier reversal of acidosis.