Fledge failure.--A total of 1234 (48.4%) monitored nests did not fledge any young, while our successful nests (hatched at least one young) had a fledging
rate of 77.2%.
The clutch size, hatching success, and fledging
success that we measured for cave swallows in northeastern Texas are comparable to those reported in southwest and central Texas both in natural caves and in culverts (Martin, 1981; Kosciuch et al., 2006).
After achieving a nine out of 10 fledging
rate, we gained permission to proceed with a translocation of STAL chicks in 2008.
Key words: brood size; clutch size, evolution of; fecundity, future; individual optimization; life-history theory; nest predation; offspring recruitment of brood size, fledging
size; passerines; reproduction, cost of; survival; Tyrannus tyrannus.
(3) Sexual size dimorphism may already be evident prior to fledging
, such that male and female chicks may have different needs during early growth, leading to differences in parental costs for rearing sons and daughters, and possibly to differences between factors affecting survival from fledging
to adult age.
I had the pleasure of observing this fledging
The closure of cliffs and associated trails during the nesting season has proven to be successful with over 125 chicks fledging
from cliffs in Acadia National Park over the last 20 years.
The effect of bleeding on nestlings of white-eyed vireos was assessed using a two-by-two contingency table with two variables; bleeding and fledging
. We used a chi-square analysis to assess the relationship between bleeding and fledging
and a binomial probability distribution to determine whether the observed sex ratio differed significantly from the expected sex ratio of 1:1 of nestlings using the following equation: n!/k!(n--k)!* [p.sup.k] [(1 - p).sup.(n -k)], where n = number of nestlings sampled, k = number of males observed, and p = probability of finding a male.
Keywords: brood reduction; fledging
success; food limitation; Forpus passerinus; Green- rumped Parrotlet; growth rate; hatching asynchrony; mark-recapture; parrot; reproductive effort; survival; Venezuela.
, Athena left Northumberland and travelled into Scotland.
However two satellite-tagged chicks, Marc and Manu, suspiciously disappeared over grouse moors just months after fledging
A female chick at Cors Dyfi also suffered a leg injury, probably a ligament, following a clumsy fall from a perch a few nights after fledging