The passion fruit peel amounts to 60% (in mass) of the whole fruit and it is composed of flavedo
Essential oils and flavonoids are concentrated on pigment glands found in coloured (flavedo
) portion of orange peels and are approximately 0.2-0.5% of this fruit.
(23) In the study, Wistar rats were subdivided into two groups for one month: the first group was fed with albedo flour from passion fruit, and the second group received the flour from the whole passion fruit bark (albedo + flavedo
Mayer, "Differential induction of proteins in orange flavedo
by biologically based elicitors and challenged by Penicillium digitatum Sacc.1," Biological Control, vol.
Effect of postharvest temperature and Ethylene on carotenoid accumulation in the flavedo
and juice sacs of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit.
Fruiting position during development of 'Nules Clementine' mandarin affects the concentration of K, Mg, and Ca in the flavedo
. Scientia Horticulturae, 130(4), 829-837.
The authors attributed the high mortality to the combined action of egg encapsulation in essential oil glands of the flavedo
and the toxicity of the albedo.
In the standard juicing process, high pressure is applied to the flavedo
and/or albedo of the yuzu fruit, resulting in the extraction of ascorbic acid, flavanone glycosides, and odorants present in the juice.
The orange fruit is composed of three sections, an external layer (peel), named flavedo
, epicarp, or exocarp, a white portion below the exocarp, named albedo or mesocarp, and the innermost portion, the endocarp, that contains vesicles with juice and seeds [5,6].
The chromaticity of the flavedo
, which indicates the intensity of the color, was also influenced by the application of coating (Figure 3).
Hormonal and nutritional changes in the flavedo
regulating rind color development in Sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.].
Liu, "The flavonoid composition of flavedo
and juice from the pummelo cultivar (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) and the grapefruit cultivar (Citrus paradisi) from China," Food Chemistry, vol.