flail

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flail

 [flāl]
exhibiting abnormal or pathologic mobility, such as a flail chest or a flail joint.
flail chest a loss of stability of the chest wall due to three or more ribs that are broken in two or more places as a result of a crushing chest injury. The loose chest segment moves in a direction in the reverse of normal; that is, the segment moves inward during inhalation and outward during exhalation (paradoxical respiration). Other manifestations include shortness of breath, cyanosis, and extreme pain in the area of trauma.

Emergency treatment is aimed at stabilizing the loose chest segment to reduce ineffective and exhausting chest movement and provide for adequate ventilation of the lungs. The patient is transported lying on the affected side to further stabilize the chest wall and enable the use of the unaffected side for respiration.
Flail chest. A, Inspiration. As intrapleural pressure becomes increasingly negative, the flail segment and its underlying lung tissue are sucked inward, collapsing the lung on the affected side and shifting the mediastinum toward the unaffected side. B, Expiration. As intrapleural pressure becomes less negative, the flail segment and underlying tissue are pushed outward, and the mediastinum shifts to the affected side. Some air moves between the lungs instead of passing through the upper airways. Large arrows indicate structural movement; dashed arrows indicate abnormal air movement; small arrows indicate normal air movement; open arrows indicate flail segment movement. From Kitt et al., 1995.
References in periodicals archive ?
Flail mowers have been around for cutting lawns, shredding crop debris, making hay, and maintaining highway right-of-ways and fields for years, but too often when folks turn to rough-country tasks, they overlook this workhorse.
Standard HammerHead Picote packages include Smart Cutter Starter Kits, Twisters, Cyclone chain flails, adaptors, bearing, steering axle, front drill heads, side grinding panels, hub disks and a set of hand tools precisely designed for reinstatement jobs.
The flail head comes off in 30 seconds without tools.
A book entitled The Vickers Tanks (ISBN 1-85260-141-8) describes how the flail unit was developed, by the Newcastle company of Vickers, to fit to many types of armoured vehicles, the Vickers Centurion tank being used for trials and demonstrations.
Noorey ran off but he was chased and, during the pursuit, he was seen to discard the rice flails and also pounds 160 in cash.
The rice flails were in a pocket at the back of the passenger seat.
There were flail tanks for clearing mines, crocodile tanks which were flame-throwers for attacking enemy pill boxes, bridge-carrying tanks, bulldozer tanks, tanks carrying large bundles of wood for crossing anti-tank ditches, tanks equipped with matting to cover the sand as well as tanks with 25lb cannons.
Operating (variable) costs included maintenance and repairs of $1.48 per productive machine hour (PMH), $2.12/PMH for fuel and lubricants, and $1.85/PMH for replacement of flail chains.
The planer will perform the tough applications (remove coatings that need the impact energy of flails), and the grinder will smooth the surface before re-coating.
Flails attached in front of armored anti-mine vehicles have been around for several decades.