The role of flagella
in Clostridium difficile pathogenicity.
Pfs, an important functional enzyme in AI-2 signal synthesis, encounter 25 % decrease of mRNA level under QS-1 influence, while flagella
motility was reduced heavily in luxS mutant.
The antennules of the Baltic shrimp Palaemon adspersus are sensory organs comprising two slender, filiform flagella
, lateral and medial, both of which are implanted on a common rigid peduncle.
play a key role in the bacterium's access to the bacterial colonization location.
Many [alpha]-giardins ([alpha]-2, [alpha]-4, [alpha]-5, [alpha]-8, [alpha]-9, [alpha]-10, [alpha]-11, [alpha]-14, [alpha]-17, and [alpha]-19) have been shown to localize in flagella
; a few [alpha]-giardins such as [alpha]-3, [alpha]-5, and [alpha]-17 were found localized in the disc; some [alpha]-giardins such as [alpha]-1, [alpha]-2, [alpha]-7.2, [alpha]-7.3, [alpha]-8, and [alpha]-11 were located in the plasma membrane, and other [alpha]-giardins ([alpha]-6, [alpha]-7.3, [alpha]-12, [alpha]-15, and [alpha]-16) had spotty cytoplasmic distribution [6, 9-11, 13, 18].
Arrow heads in (a) and in (b) indicate anterior flagella
and undulating membrane, respectively (630x).
of Occurrence isolates (%) Lipase (lip) 40 100 Elastase (ela) 0 0 DNAse (exu) 40 100 Cytotonic heat--labile 0 0 (alt) Cytotonic heat--stable 12 30 enterotoxin (ast) Cytotoxic heat--labile 12 30 enerotoxin (act) Hemolysin (hly) 38 95 Aerolysin (aer) 31 76 Flagella
(fla) 0 0 Serine Protease (ser) 40 100 Table 4: Occurrence and combinations of virulence in A.
Sliding disintegration of sperm flagella
. Sliding disintegration of sperm flagella
was performed by the method of Lindemann and Gibbons (9) with several modifications.
In addition to [F.sub.1][F.sub.0] ATP synthase bacterial flagella
, kinesin, dynein, myosin, actin, microtubule, dynamin, RNA polymerase, DNA polymerase, helicases, topoisomerases, and viral DNA packaging motors are some other prominent biological nanomotors.
Found in termite hindguts, this tiny creature with more than 20 flagella
is named for H.P.
"It's about passion and sacrifice," said Alexander Flagella
, 27, a finalist in Vogue Italia's "Who is On Next?" competition, showing off his first-ever collection with a sophisticated and elegant 1930s look.
The experiment turned up another surprise: Many of the cells in the deep biosphere are making proteins to make flagella
, the whiplike "tails" that propel them through a fluid environment.