of the mass to the skin was observed, and the overlying skin was hyperemic.
One of the behavior patterns of CD is the penetrating one, which may exhibit aggressive characteristics, such as transmural involvement, fistulization
to the surrounding structures, progression of intraabdominal abscess, and peritonitis.
Large haematomas may cause extensive compression necrosis of pelvic structures, abscess formation and result in chronic peritonitis when abscess fistulization
Even in one of our cases, we preferred the development of fistulization
; since we could not find the cystic duct, we placed a drain even in the open surgery in order to prevent any biliary tract damage.
Pulmonary embolism can occur either after a cardiac involvement by the cyst or after a fistulization
of a hepatic hydatid cyst in the IVC or hepatic veins.
The nodule in the right groin increased in volume and gave rise to fistulization
and purulent discharge.
The limited depth of coagulation (0.5-3 mm)  explained the low risk of perforation, stenosis, and fistulization
. Unlike traditional bipolar devices, APC could be applied axially and radially, allowing tangential coagulation of lesions around rectal bends without significant reduction in effectiveness.
Other complications include bowel perforation, fistulization
, malabsorption, and intestinal hemorrhage.
Caption: Figure 3: Gross specimen of the tumor ((a) anterior view; (b) cross section), showing a multinodular mass with fistulization
to the umbilical skin (black arrows) and involvement of the bladder wall (red arrow) and a central necrotic cavity (star).
Associated risk factors for the development of ARSA-esophageal fistulization
have varied (Table 1).
Perforation of the diverticulum may occur, causing a wide range of complications that are mainly intraperitoneal in nature, such as abscessation, fistulization
, and hemorrhage.
In cases of hematocolpos fistulization
through the vaginal septum, the complaint maybe fetid leukorrhea [3,10].