A first-order change
requires interventions that "focus on solving problems so that established patterns can function more effectively" (14) For example, addressing problems of unwarranted credibility deficits requires reform within the framework where credibility still confers authority.
If we lower A1c, if we improve patient satisfaction, we have created an important first-order change
The first-order change
of problem solving or alleviating symptoms (Murray, 2002) could be the client establishing abstinence.
Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change
merely makes things a little less bad.
works within the broad parameters of the existing paradigm, as established authorities fine-tune their policy instruments to address certain policy anomalies.
Historically, behavioral and related approaches to psychotherapy have embraced what may be regarded as first-order change
strategies in dealing with clinical problems in which private experiences such as unwanted thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, impulses, and memories are thought to be centrally involved (Hayes, 1987, 1994).
is probably best described as commonsense change.
This is a process extending beyond linear, first-order change
is incremental in nature and reflects movement that is more or less already taking place.
This is in contrast to first-order change
, which is often a response to identified needs.
Will the change be more of the same--predominantly first-order change
-- or will the sector be managed in such a way as to create whole system change -- second-order change?