In signed languages, proper nouns are usually fingerspelled using a manual alphabet derived for that purpose.
In the SASL corpus, finger-spelling is prefixed with category code (Z) together with axial categories for single letters (0), surnames (1), other names of people (2), names of organizations (3), names of places or directions (4), names of things or measurements (5) and fingerspelled conjunctions such as IF and SO (6), e.g.
For example, "SELEBI_v0" means that the interpreter fingerspells all letters and simultaneously mouths "selebi", whereas "S-E-L-EBI_v0" means that the interpreter mouths the first three letters S, E, L separately, then the remaining letters as a partial word, "ebi".
His residual vision allowed him to discriminate pictures and line drawings, and he was able to print the alphabet and could pair the letters with the fingerspelled manual alphabet.
Due to R.D.'s visual condition, modifications were necessary for receptive communication: the signing partner needed to wear dark clothing for contrast; care was taken to limit the glare of light; the distance between her and the partner needed to be increased; the "signing space," or spacial area in which signs are formed, needed to be decreased due to visual field restrictions; and some signs needed to be modified, e.g., the sign for "Russia" was fingerspelled as the formal sign is made at waistline level and could not be seen by R.D.
The first mode taught to him was the fingerspelled manual alphabet.