filter

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filter

 [fil´ter]
1. a device for eliminating or separating certain elements, as (a) particles of certain size from a solution, or (b) rays of certain wavelength from a stream of radiant energy.
2. to cause such separation or elimination.
membrane filter a filter made up of a thin film of collodion, cellulose acetate, or other material, available in a wide range of defined pore sizes, the smaller ones being capable of retaining all the known viruses.
Millipore filter trademark for a device used to filter nutrient solutions as they are administered intravenously.
vena cava filter (vena caval filter) a filter used in the inferior vena cava to prevent pulmonary embolism.
Wood's filter a nickel-oxide filter that holds back all but a few violet rays and passes ultraviolet rays of about 365 nm; see also Wood's light.

fil·ter

(fil'tĕr),
1. A porous substance through which a liquid or gas is passed to separate it from contained particulate matter or impurities to sterilize. Synonym(s): filtrum
2. To use or to subject to the action of a filter.
3. In diagnostic or therapeutic radiology, a plate made of one or more metals such as aluminum and copper that, placed in the x- or gamma ray beam, permits passage of a greater proportion of higher-energy radiation and attenuation of lower-energy and less desirable radiation, raising the average energy or hardening the beam.
4. A device used in spectrophotometric analysis to isolate a segment of the spectrum.
5. A mathematical algorithm applied to imaging data for the purpose of enhancing image quality, usually by suppression or enhancement of high spatial frequencies.
6. A passive electronic circuit or device that selectively permits the passage of certain electrical signals.
7. A device placed in the inferior vena cava to prevent pulmonary embolism from low extremity clot. There are many variants.
[Mediev. L. filtro, pp. -atus, to strain through felt, fr. filtrum, felt]

filter

(fĭl′tər)
n.
1.
a. A porous material through which a liquid or gas is passed in order to separate the fluid from suspended particulate matter.
b. A device containing such a material, especially one used to extract impurities from air or water.
2.
a. Any of various electric, electronic, acoustic, or optical devices used to reject signals, vibrations, or radiations of certain frequencies while allowing others to pass.
b. A colored glass or other transparent material used to select the wavelengths of light allowed to reach a photosensitive material.
3. Computers A program or device that blocks e-mail or restricts website access when specific criteria are met.
v. fil·tered, fil·tering, fil·ters
v.tr.
1. To pass (a liquid or gas) through a filter.
2. To remove by passing through a filter: filter out impurities.
3. Computers To use a filter to block or restrict access to: a program that filters spam.
v.intr.
1. To pass through or as if through a filter: Light filtered through the blinds.
2. To come or go gradually and in small groups: The audience filtered back into the hall.

fil′ter·er n.
fil′ter·less adj.

filter

Imaging A layer of absorbing material, usually a metal–eg, Al, Cu, Pb, Sn that increases the ratio of hard X-rays to soft X-rays, the latter of which are of greater diagnostic value, given their ability to penetrate the imaged tissues. See Radiation Medtalk A device used to separate one material from another. See Absolute filter, Adhesion filter, Blood filter, Inferior vena cava filter, Microaggregate filter, Red-free filter, Standard filter, Water filter.

fil·ter

(fil'tĕr)
1. A porous substance through which a liquid or gas is passed to separate it from contained particulate matter or impurities.
Synonym(s): filtrum.
2. To use or to subject to the action of a filter.
3. radiology A device, used in both diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, which permits passage of useful x-rays and absorbs those with a lower and less desirable energy.
4. A device used in spectrophotometric analysis to isolate a segment of the spectrum.
5. A mathematic algorithm applied to image data for the purpose of enhancing image quality, usually by suppression of high spatial frequency noise.
6. A passive electronic circuit or device that selectively permits the passage of certain electrical signals.
7. A device placed in the inferior vena cava to prevent pulmonary embolism from lower limb clot.
8. radiation physics Material placed in an x-ray beam that is used to improve the beam's quality by removing low-energy beams.
[Mediev. L. filtro, pp. -atus, to strain through felt, fr. filtrum, felt]

filter

Material or device used to absorb or transmit light of all wavelengths equally (neutral density filter which is abbreviated ND filter) or selectively, such as the coloured filters (blue filter transmits only blue light, green filter transmits only green light, etc.). See optical density; absorptive lens; neutral density filter test; optical wedge.
bandpass filter A filter that allows the passage of radiations only within a narrow band of wavelengths around a central wavelength. This is done by multilayer coating, which produces destructive interference. See coating; coated lens.
green filter A filter which transmits only green light. It may be used in ophthalmoscopy to increase the contrast of the blood vessels to the background facilitating the visibility of retinal circulation defects, haemorrhages and microaneurysms and the distinction between retinal and choroidal lesions. However, ophthalmoscopes actually use a filter that transmits a certain amount of red light, as otherwise the observation would be so dark as to make it extremely difficult. Syn. red-free filter.
interference filter A coloured filter consisting of five layers, two outside glass, two intermediate evaporated metal films and one central evaporated layer of transparent material. These filters act not by absorption of light but by destructive interference for all except a very narrow band of wavelengths, which are transmitted. Syn. coloured filter.
neutral density filter  See filter.
red filter A filter that transmits only red light. It may be used in ophthalmoscopy to facilitate viewing the yellow macular pigment, but other structures are seen with less contrast. It also produces a larger pupil allowing observation of a larger fundus area.
red-free filter See green filter.
Wood's filter See Wood's light.

fil·ter

(fil'tĕr)
1. A porous substance through which a liquid or gas is passed to separate it from contained particulate matter or impurities to sterilize.
2. In diagnostic or therapeutic radiology, a plate made of one or more metals such as aluminum and copper that, placed in the x- or gamma ray beam, permits passage of a greater proportion of higher-energy radiation and attenuation of lower-energy and less desirable radiation.
[Mediev. L. filtro, pp. -atus, to strain through felt, fr. filtrum, felt]
References in periodicals archive ?
This is quite close to what happens with filter bubbles and echo chambers on social media.
Lousy results such as this have led Zuckerman toward a more radical idea for countering filter bubbles: the creation of a taxpayer-funded social-media platform with a civic mission to provide a "diverse and global view of the world."
While news personalization can help people manage information overload by making individuals' news diets unique, it also threatens to incite filter bubbles and, in turn, bias.
On the contrary: the way we use social networks and the way these networks present us, in turn, with content we are likely to consume produces what author Eh Pariser calls "filter bubbles."
Mark Zuckerberg has since dismissed this notion as "pretty crazy" Maybe so, but my Hillary-voter filter bubble these days is becoming an echo chamber so deafening that I'm seriously re-examining how much time I spend on social media altogether.
(2013): Beyond the Filter Bubble: Interactive Active Effects of Percevied Threat and Topic Involvement on Selective Exposure to Information, ACM conference on Computer-Human Interaction, Paris.
Does Facebook create a filter bubble? Well, Facebook's own study, published in Science, argued that it did not, except for the most partisan Facebook users (about 4 percent of the U.S.
We also must be aware of our own "filter bubble." According to Wikipedia (en .wikipedia.org/wiki/Filter_bubble):
Google's "filter bubble" that Eli Pariser warned us about (The Filter Bubble: How the New Personalized Web Is Changing What We Read and How We Think, 2011) did a great job finding enough subtle connections to point me to a social media account that the individual probably thought was more private than it is.
(The Internet activist Eli Pariser has famously dubbed this the "filter bubble" -- a phenomenon in which personalization algorithms effectively cut people off from the cultural and ideological mainstream.)
This creates what has been called a "filter bubble" where websites selectively guess what information you would like to see based on your location and past click behavior and searches.