In summary, descriptive epidemiological, morphological, and molecular evidence now support increasing cases of ocular nematode infections in domestic dogs and humans, with most cases caused by filarial worms
including Dirofilaria repens and other zoonotic Dirofilaria species and Onchocerca lupi and other zoonotic Onchocerca species.
Elephantiasis is the most obvious manifestation of lymphatic filariasis, afflicting a minority of people infected with filarial worms
Glutathione GPXs protect the filarial worms
from oxidative peroxidases (GPXs) damage, and are thus important targets for novel chemotherapy.
Reasons for this discrepancy are unclear but may be related to differences in the "preferred" anatomic location of the adult filarial worm
between men and women (18) and biologic factors, particularly pregnancy, that further stress the lymphatic system in women.
Elephantiasis is caused by a variety of roundworms (filarial worms
to be precise), which include Wucherereria bancrofti which causes almost 90 per cent of cases while Brugia malayi accounts for most of the remaining 10 per cent.
Lymphatic Filariasis known as "Elephantiasis," is a chronic parasitic infection that is caused by thread-like parasitic filarial worms
, which lodge in the nodes and vessels of the lymphatic system.
The studies have demonstrated sub-lethal effect of antibiotics on filarial worms
and this is due to effect on the Wolbachia (2,3,4).
In Central as well as South US, as well as some Caribbean islands, attacking midgets are the vectors of filarial worms
in the category Mansonella.
Though, other clinical manifestations due to filarial infection such as acute attacks of filarial fever and chronic manifestations of limb lymphoedema/elephantiasis are known to be influenced by the anatomic location of adult filarial worms
, presence or absence of microfilaria (mf), immune responses and secondary bacterial infections (2), but contribution of W.
Srivastava, "Biochemical targets in filarial worms
for selective antifilarial drug design," Acta Parasitologica, vol.