No, not fungi, not mold, not black molds, not toxic black molds, but these filamentous bacteria
are only recently becoming recognized in clinical dust samples as major players in adverse human health effects.
For instance, segmented filamentous bacteria
(SFB) was once considered innocuous.
Black and white images depict different types of filamentous bacteria
, yeasts, thermally dimorphic fungi, and thermally monomorphic molds.
bacilli in pairs, bacillus cocci, filaments, filamentous bacteria
(similar to Methanosaeta) and diatoms.
Zhang, "Effect of filamentous bacteria
on membrane fouling in submerged membrane bioreactor," Journal of Membrane Science, vol.
In addition, the abundance of filamentous bacteria
increased between 12 and 24 h in the nutrients treatment, while in the dark-control, a smaller and delayed increase occurred between 36 and 48 h.
Cultures grew variable branching filamentous bacteria
after 3 days of incubation, later identified as Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method done in Quest Diagnostics Infectious Diseases, a reference laboratory in California).
There was no evidence of malignancy, but multiple filamentous bacteria
consistent with the Nocardia species were identified.
Some research has shown that segmented filamentous bacteria
(SFB) located in the ileum could induce the differentiation of Th17 cells; however, the induction of SFB is unrelated to TLR, NOD-RIP2, or ATP signaling pathways based on analyses in a model of MyD88/TRIF double-deficiency and RIP-2 mutant mice [31, 32].
These filamentous bacteria
were occasionally seen looping within and between adjacent superficial cells (Fig.
Gut epithelium itself seems to exert a selective acting role in coordinate T-cell responses toward some segmented filamentous bacteria