A typical fibroxanthoma
(AFX) is a low-grade, indolent sarcoma that tends to occur on sun-exposed areas, such as the head and neck.
The common primary cutaneous sarcomas include dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP), leiomyosarcoma, and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma (PDS) (also known as an aggressive variant of atypical fibroxanthoma
(AFX) is a rare, superficial fibrohistiocytic skin tumour composed predominantly of fusiform, epithelioid, spindle, and pleomorphic cells .
Since its first observation in the lung in 1939, many different terms have been coined to describe IPT, such as inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, plasma cell granuloma, inflammatory myofibrohistiocytic proliferation, inflammatory fibrosarcoma, xanthoma, xanthogranuloma, fibroxanthoma
, histiocytoma, xanthomatous pseudotumor, plasmocytoma, and solitary mast cell granuloma, indicating the complex and diverse nature of this entity (1).
The upregulation of NEP correlates with ongoing EMT as tumor cells with significant expression of EMT markers, such as vimentin and [alpha]-smooth muscle actin (aSMA), and S100 proteins show increased levels of CD10 on the cell surface (94% atypical fibroxanthoma
, 50% of squamous cell carcinoma, and 33% of spindle cell/desmoplastic melanomas) [77, 78].
These include metastatic carcinoma, malignant melanoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, pleomorphic dermal sarcoma, atypical fibroxanthoma
, and myeloid sarcoma .
Less common skin cancers include melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, a typical fibroxanthoma
HMB-45 (gp103) and MART-1 expression within giant cells in an atypical fibroxanthoma
: a case report.
Differential diagnosis of GCT-ST includes soft tissue mesenchymal tumour which are rich in giant cell, villonodular sinuvitis, cellular dermatofibroma, atypical fibroxanthoma
, plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumour, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, leiomyosarcoma, extraskeletal osteosarcoma and epithelioid sarcoma.6
Differential diagnoses for MO include osteosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, osteochondroma, foreign-body granuloma, giant cell tumor of soft tissue (osteoclastoma), atypical fibroxanthoma
, pseudosarcomatous fibromatosis (nodular fasciitis), and deep vein thrombosis.
Actinic Keratosis, Kaposi's sarcoma, Bowen's disease, Dermatofibroma, Atypical fibroxanthoma
constituted the remaining.
While cytological features may not enable distinction from a spindle cell SCC and atypical fibroxanthoma
(AFX), the presence of a junctional component helps delineate spindle cell melanoma (Figure 23).