The drug caused embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity
, and teratogenicity in rats and rabbits at doses less than the human dose.
An animal study suggested that prenatal exposure to Mn was related to reduced fetal body weight and increased incidences of skeletal defects in mice, and exposures on days 9 and 10 of gestation (mid-pregnancy) had the strongest fetotoxicity
(Colomina et al.
Analysis of biosafety of placental extracts revealed the absence of toxic or mutagenic influence on cell cultures and adult animal models; however, fetotoxicity
in animals at early gestation was reported .
Embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity
following intraperitoneal administrations of hexavalent chromium to pregnant rats.
Although little is known so far about their properties and toxicological mechanisms, bioavailability, and stability in the digestive tract, Alternaria toxins have been shown to have harmful effects in animals, including cytotoxicity, fetotoxicity
, and teratogenicity.
A very significant reduction in body weight of the conceptus is a fetotoxicity
indication, inducing a delay of intrauterine development, since according to Sharp and Laregina , fetal body weight at birth is around 6 g.
Taking all the information into account, the maximum number of diseases associated with a group of chemicals, i.e., pesticides, is 99, and the maximum number of chemicals associated with one disease, i.e., fetotoxicity
, is 70.
Oshima-Franco, "Assessment of cytotoxicity, fetotoxicity
, and teratogenicity of Plathymenia reticulata benth barks aqueous extract," BioMed Research International, vol.
Preliminary studies had shown that the positive control of 10 mg/kg CP was suitable for studying transplacental genotoxicity, as it shows a significant increase in MN frequency but not significant fetotoxicity
. All drugs were administered intraperitoneally in three consecutive daily doses on days 12 to 14 of pregnancy, except CP, which was administrated in a single dose.
In general, because of fetotoxicity
of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonist drugs, these agents should be avoided in pregnancy and lactation.
This shows potential teratogenicity activity and dose-dependent abortifacient effect; while it does not present fetotoxicity
Therefore, the copaiba oil delivered in the vaginal cream, in the concentration employed, did not determine the appearance of fetotoxicity
. even though the number of pups classified as small for gestational age (SAP) was higher in this group (Fig.