Nathan, whose research in fetoscopy
has resulted in prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell disease and Cooley's anemia, has urged that no research procedure be permitted which might damage the fetus, since such research could seriously affect a pregnant woman's decision about whether to proceed with the abortion.
Ezra Davidson, who performed the unethical fetoscopy
experiment of 1979, to advise it on ethical issues.
Not only does the technology of fetoscopy seem to validate these long-standing images of the womb, so does - as Adams was surprised to discover - some twentieth-century speculative feminist fiction.
Adams links the modern physician, brandishing the supposedly revolutionary techniques of fetoscopy and ultrasound, with the ancient philosopher who helped the poor benighted soul out of the cave of illusion.
Invasive uterine procedures performed during pregnancy (Such as amniocentesis, cordocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, fetoscopy
, and cervical circlage) can damage the membranes, causing them to leak, but these are rare causes of PPROM.
A wide array of techniques are now available for identifying fetal defects in early pregnancy, including amniocentesis, fetoscopy
The most common cause for membrane rupture is iatrogenic either due to a procedure such as amniocentesis or fetal reduction or fetoscopy. Spontaneous septostomy has been reported more commonly in chorio-amnionitis causing weakening of the membrane, excessive fetal movement and polyhydramnios which causes excessive pressures on the dividing membrane.
In some rare instances, the equalization of liquor on both sides of the membrane has resulted in balance of blood flow in the vessels and continuation of the pregnancy (8) with favorable outcome similar to the principle of therapeutic amniotomy which was performed prior to the advent of laser fetoscopy. The other complications of SSDM include pseudo-monoamniotic pregnancy, amniotic band syndrome and preterm labor.
At a fast pace, innovations and technological advances brought us the fetal heart rate monitor, noninvasive ultrasound, embryoscopy and fetoscopy
, and, more recently, methods to measure maternal biochemical analytes as a means to assess the developing infant's health.
Brief report: umbilical-cord ligation of an acardiac twin by fetoscopy
at 19 weeks of gestation.
The introduction of ultrasound and fetoscopy
represented new frontiers; they provided significantly more precise information about fetal growth and well-being, as well as detection of major congenital malformations and metabolic problems.