In contrast to the present study, no significant associations have been identified between parity and fetal presentation
and SFWE failure in recent reports.19,24 Because no comparable data were presented in these studies, we could not determine the cause of dissimilarity between the findings of these studies and our own.
Objective: This study was carried out to explore the effect of maternal social factors such as age, education, parity, consanguineous marriages, and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), and clinical factors such as fetal presentation
, mode of delivery, and gestational age, birth weight, and placental morphometry.
Abnormalities of fetal anatomy, fetal presentation
, and soft tissue obstruction are rarely the cause of shoulder dystocia.
The data included personal information such as age, parity, height, weight, occupation, income and exposure to risk factors like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, anemia, fetal presentation
, number of previous cesarean sections, birth spacing, spontaneous or induced labor, infertility treatment, and maternal exercises during pregnancy.
Women were ineligible if they had prostaglandin hypersensitivity, previous uterine surgery, a noncephalic fetal presentation
, or nonreassuring fetal cardiac monitoring.
It also allowed the discovery of a lack of relationship with the maternal heart rate and made it possible to diagnose fetal life or death and in twins, the determination of fetal presentation
and position (Kergaradec cited by O'Dowd & Philipp, 1994).
In analyses that took into account fetal presentation
(e.g., breech or other non-headfirst positions), the odds of fetal death were lower for infants delivered by cesarean section prior to labor than for those with a spontaneous vaginal birth (odds ratio, 0.6).