This parallel nature enables fetuses with certain types of cardiac malformations to undergo normal fetal growth and development until term because systemic blood flow is adequate in utero and seldom leads to fetal hydrops
. There are some structural cardiac malformations that can cause low-output hydrops, such as tricuspid dysplasia, Ebstein's anomaly, pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, and Absent Pulmonary Valve syndrome.
Obstetric ultrasound assessment showed severe fetal hydrops
with increased abdominal circumference due to ascites and elevated Middle Cerebral Artery Peak Systolic Velocity.
has many causes and carries a very high mortality rate.
(4,5) Hydrops foetalis due to maternal cause is rare and is usually due to infection or diabetes mellitus in the mother.(5) Trisomy 13, trisomy 18, Trisomy 21 and Turner syndrome may also cause cystic hygroma or fetal hydrops
. (6) Nonimmune-mediated hydrops can be caused by hemoglobinopathies.
The outcomes associated with premature ductus constriction include right heart failure, fetal hydrops
, persistent pulmonary hypertension and death.
The larger twin progressed to fetal hydrops
and the smaller infant was complicated by IUFD.
Findings on Dilation and Evacuation (D&E) Examination Suspicious for Specific Genetic Abnormality Genetic Abnormality Finding on D&E Turner sydrome Fetal hydrops
, prominent dorsal edema of (monosomy X) hands and feet, aortic coarctation Trisomy 18 Overlapping fingers, rocker-bottom feet, polydactyly Trisomy 13 Severe craniofacial anomalies, holoprosencephaly, midline cleft lip, abnormal skull base, polydactyly, splenopancreatic fusion, heart defects Trisomy 21 Wide space between first and second toes, clinodactyly, single palmar crease, heart defects, duodenal atresia Triploidy 3-4 syndactyly
Furthermore, we highlight the importance of irregular antibody screening for women with significant obstetric history and fetal hydrops
. Lastly, use of Kell-negative blood for transfusion in all females during childhood and throughout their reproductive years should further reduce the incidence of Kell-alloimmunization.
was defined as the presence of generalized skin thickening of greater than 5 mm and at least two of the following conditions: ascites, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion or placental enlargement.
But doctors told Chris and Louise, from Newton Aycliffe, in County Durham, to brace themselves for the worst-case scenario after the scan showed sacks of fluid - fetal hydrops
- had formed around the baby's organs.
Physicians should order immunologic assays for women who may have been exposed to parvovirus to assess maternal immunity and determine whether evaluation for fetal hydrops
is necessary (SOR: C, expert opinion).
Chapters are system-based and in a bullet format, with a brief introduction to embryology and discussion of genetic developments, invasive procedures, and common developmental abnormalities and their management, such as Down syndrome and skeletal and body system abnormalities like anterior abdominal wall defects, fetal tumors, growth abnormalities, monochorionic twins, liquor volume abnormalities, infections, red cell and platelet alloimmunization, placenta and umbilical cord abnormalities, and fetal hydrops