is "reinstated" in a person or a populace ((https://mondoweiss.net/2017/05/collective-traumatic-oppression/) "collective PTSD") upon re-exposure to-or the recall of-the fear-inducing stimulus.
(10,11) In previous studies, acute immobilization stress in mice significantly elevated hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis activity, resulting in impaired fear extinction and extinction retention following Pavlovian fear conditioning
. (12,13) Furthermore, exposure to this stressor led to impaired long-term declarative memory and enhanced anxietylike behavior.
In addition, there was significant improvement in synaptic functions, as determined by long-term potentiation and contextual fear conditioning
experiments, in association with the reversal of amyloid plaques.
Some assays (e.g., novel object location) are almost exclusively dependent on the hippocampus , while others (contextual fear conditioning
or novel object recognition) also involve additional brain regions such as the amygdala and perirhinal cortex, respectively [45-47].
Behavior testing reported here includes digital gait analysis, contextual fear conditioning
, acoustic startle, and auditory prepulse inhibition.
Pain-related fear conditioning
has also been shown to induce increased tension in muscle responses .
The baseline asymmetry and lateralized changes of cPKC[beta]II in the rat amygdale are associated with the cue and context in a classical fear conditioning
Effects of Elevation of Brain Magnesium on Fear Conditioning
, Fear Extinction, and Synaptic Plasticity in the Infralimbic Prefrontal Cortex and Lateral Amygdala.
What's wrong with fear conditioning
? Biological Psychology, 92(1), 90-96.
In contextual fear conditioning
, experimental subjects are placed in an emotionally neutral context (such as a room) and presented an aversive stimulus (such as an electrical shock).
Quirk's research focuses on the neural circuits of fear regulation, using rodent and human models of fear conditioning
, extinction, and active avoidance.