fatal anaphylactic reaction

fatal anaphylactic reaction

A general term for an acute allergic reaction that results in sudden death.

Clinical findings
Generalised flushing, urticaria, angio-oedema, vomiting, diarrhoea, rhinorrhoea, sneezing, coughing, conjunctivitis, loss of consciousness, and shock.

Aetiology
Iatrogenic agents, food reactions, venom (bees, wasps).

Diagnosis
History of prior anaphylactic reactions; specific IgE antibodies to suspected antigen; elevated beta-tryptase, which is released from mast cells in anaphylactic reactions (with the caveat that beta-tryptase can be raised in non-anaphylatic fatalities and can be normal in asthmatic deaths).

Mechanism(s) of death in anaphylaxis
• Respiratory arrest—e.g., increased airways resistance with asphyxia due to pharyngeal and laryngeal oedema, lower airways obstruction due to bronchospasm or mucus plugging.
• Cardiac arrest—e.g., secondary to respiratory arrest, due to mediators of anaphylaxis on the heart, or shock with profound vasodilation and angio-oedema, leading to loss of intravascular fluid.
• Both, leading to cardiopulmonary arrest.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Figures from the Office for National Statistics show there were 1,085 deaths in the region in 2017 where the cause of death was linked to a fatal anaphylactic reaction, such as allergic reactions or reactions to drugs or venomous animals.
They attempted to save her life but she was discovered to have suffered a rare, fatal anaphylactic reaction.
Dooking for apples in basins filled with nuts would set off a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction. And supermarket Halloween displays featuring nuts could be dangerous to Kristina.
Rhoades, a member of the American Academy of Allergy and Immunology's sub-committee on fire ants, the fire ant is an insect that can cause fatal anaphylactic reaction with an initial sting, making it one of the most deadly of such insects.
It is estimated that 15-25 patients per 1 million treated will suffer a fatal anaphylactic reaction after a dose of penicillin.
However fatal anaphylactic reactions can occur and are preventable.
A review of fatal anaphylactic reactions to peanuts found the vast majority of children either did not receive epinephrine or received it late (Bock et al., 2001).
WASHINGTON -- The incidence of food allergies is relatively small, but the risk of unpredictable fatal anaphylactic reactions makes it a problem worth careful attention by physicians, allergic children, and their parents, Dr.