fat metabolism


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

fat me·tab·o·lism

oxidation, decomposition, and synthesis of fats in the tissues.

fat metabolism

the biochemical process by which fats are broken down, incorporated, and used by the cells of the body. Fats provide more food energy (9 kcal/g) than carbohydrates (4.1 kcal/g). Fat catabolism begins with the hydrolysis of fats (triglycerides) into glycerol and fatty acids. Glycerol is converted into a compound that can enter the citric acid cycle. Catabolism of fatty acids continues by beta-oxidation to produce acetylcoenzyme A, which also enters the citric acid cycle. The body synthesizes fats from fatty acids and glycerol or from compounds derived from excess glucose or from amino acids. The body can synthesize only saturated fatty acids; essential unsaturated fatty acids can be supplied only by diet. Fat metabolism is controlled by hormones such as insulin, growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and glucocorticoids. The rate of fat catabolism is inversely related to the rate of carbohydrate catabolism, and in some conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, the secretion of these hormones increases to counter a decrease in carbohydrate catabolism.

fat metabolism

The sum of the physical and chemical changes involved in the breakdown and synthesis of fats in the body. Dietary fats are digested to fatty acids and glycerol in the small intestine, absorbed, and reformed into triglycerides that are transported in the form of chylomicrons. Fats may be stored in adipose tissue as potential energy or may be broken down to provide immediate energy. The liver has enzymes for the beta-oxidation of fatty acids and their use in the Krebs cycle. Fats may be formed from excess dietary carbohydrate or amino acids. Synthetic reactions produce phospholipids and steroids.
See also: metabolism

fat me·tab·o·lism

(fat mĕ-tabŏ-lizm)
Oxidation, decomposition, and synthesis of fats in the tissues.
References in periodicals archive ?
The connection between copper and fat metabolism is not altogether surprising.
Next the team examined whether the genetic remnants of Neandertals tinkered with fat metabolism in today's humans.
Possible claims for such products would principally be aimed at slimming, a healthy BMI, boosting fat metabolism and supporting weight management, but could also target the sport and fitness and healthy ageing markets.
Mouse Leukemia Inhibitory Factor is a lymphoid factor involved in a number of biological processes including neural and hematopoietic cell differentiation, bone and fat metabolism, and mitogenesis of certain factor dependent cell lines.
Kim will be in charge of Zafgen's clinical development, including the company's clinical and regulatory strategy, which is focused on the adoption of a MetAP2 inhibitor treatment aimed at helping correct imbalances in fat metabolism.
Fat metabolism can be manipulated by some feed additives.
For example, in a recent paper by Henderson et al, it was shown that compared to a sedentary group, with exercise at either 45 or 65% Max VO2, there was elevated fat metabolism in the 2 exercise groups for more than 6 hours post exercise.
UCLA researchers have found that a key regulator of cholesterol and fat metabolism in the liver also plays an important role in the development of liver fibrosis--the build-up of collagen scar tissue that can develop into cirrhosis.
The Ultracavitation therapy reduces the number of fat cells in a particular area, while radio frequency helps in improving fat metabolism.
The results suggest that long-term exercisers with a very high levels of fitness experience dramatic increases in glycerol, a marker of fat metabolism.
Examples of topics discussed include the effect of exercise and nutrition on intramuscular fat metabolism and insulin sensitivity, compartmentalization of mammalian folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism, iron homeostasis and the inflammatory response, targeting inflammation-induced obesity and metabolic diseases by curcumin and other nutraceuticals, fatty acid supply to the human fetus, iron-sensing proteins that regulate hepcidin and enteric iron absorption, the role of muscle insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of atherogenic dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with the metabolic syndrome, evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes, and physiological insights gained from gene expression analysis in obesity and diabetes.
Research on insulin and fat metabolism over the past several decades has shown that the carbohydrate hypothesis is correct, and that instead of fat and cholesterol causing heart disease, it is the carbohydrates that determine the atherogenicity of lipoproteins.