A variety of such markers had previously been evaluated, including p21, p27, p53, p16, IMP3, Ki-67, and fascin
(O'Neill et al., 2007; Chen & Yang; Fadare et al., 2011; Mills et al.).
Immunohistochemical evaluation generally demonstrates the neoplastic cells to be positive for S100 (intense, diffuse), (14) fascin
, HLA-DR, CD11c, and vimentin, and negative for CD1a and CD207/langerin.
These histiocytes harbor apparently intact lymphocytes, lending the appearance of a 'cell within a cell,' or emperipolesis. Emperipolesis is not a unique phenomenon to RDD and has been seen in both normal and leukemic processes. On immunohistochemical staining, RDD histiocytes were positive for CD68, CD14, HLA-DR, fascin
, CD163, and S-100, but typically negative for CD1a, enabling the disease to be distinguishing from Langerhans histiocytosis.
A study suggested that fascin
expression is increased in LyP cases associated with a malignant lymphoma.12 Alterations in TGF-ss signaling are hypothesized to play a role in the progression of LyP to malignant lymphoma.
Kilvaer et al., "The prognostic impact of TGF-[beta]1, fascin
, NF-[kappa]B and PKC-[zeta] expression in soft tissue sarcomas," PLoS One, vol.
expression in undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinoma," Human Pathology, vol.
Bauer et al., "Liver X receptors regulate dendritic cell phenotype and function through blocked induction of the actin-bundling protein fascin
," Blood, vol.
The observed antitumor effect was associated with the derepression of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which in turn led to the inhibition of both mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and its regulatory target fascin
actin-bundling protein 1 (FSCN1).
For example, mir-133b can inhibit the cell growth and invasion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by targeting Fascin
homolog 1 .
Such sensitivity is better than the recently identified autoantibody biomarkers in early-stage ESCC reported by our team, including autoantibodies against ezrin, fascin
, and L1CAM [23, 34, 35], which indicates that autoantibodies against STIP1 might be an encouraging candidate for establishment of an optimized autoantibody signature required to gain high sensitivity necessary for ESCC screening.
These cells were CD21+++ (Figure 1(d)); CD23+++; fascin
reported that fascin
(an actin-bundling protein) effectively regulates breast CSCs at least partially through Notch pathway .