The attachment means 15 prenylationcarbon farnesyl pyrophosphate
, farnesyl transferase when it operates, or 20 carbon geranylogeranyl pyrophosphate (under the influence of geranylgeranyl transferase) to the cysteine in the sequence CAAX.
The relatively long duration of action of zoledronic acid is attributable to its high binding affinity for bone mineral matrix, its potent inhibition of the osteoclastic key enzyme farnesyl pyrophosphate
synthase translate and slow release from bone.
By inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, statins lower production of farnesyl pyrophosphate
and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, which are needed for posttranslational activation of Ras, Rho, and other proteins that are overexpressed in CRC and that have been linked to tumor invasion.
Studies point to the ability of bisphosphonates to inhibit the farnesyl pyrophosphate
synthase (FPPS) enzyme in the parasite's cytosol as their mechanism of activity .
The early steps follow the MVAP to form farnesyl pyrophosphate
chamomilla may inhibit fungal growth via specific inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis, probably by inhibiting one of the enzymes responsible for the formation of farnesyl pyrophosphate
(FPP) precursors (Arruda et al.
The reduction in mevalonate pathway intermediates by statins also prevent the synthesis of isoprenoid intermediates, farnesyl pyrophosphate
(FPP) and geranyl geranyl pyrophosphate(GGPP).
A subgroup of these agents known as aminobisphosphonates, which includes alendronate, also inhibits the osteoclastic enzyme known as farnesyl pyrophosphate
(FPP) synthase, thereby maximizing their antiresorptive potential.
synthase is the molecular target of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates.
Another effect of aminobisphosphonates is the inhibition of farnesyl pyrophosphate
synthase (FPPS), a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, which is the biosynthetic route for the production of cholesterol (Ann.
(FPP) is required for the activation of small guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding regulatory proteins.
In large part, the anti-inflammatory actions of statins result from the depletion of two biologically important cholesterol pathway intermediates, farnesyl pyrophosphate
(FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), which are required for posttranslational modification of small GTP-binding proteins (small GTPases) such as Ras (FPP) or Rac and Rho (GGPP) (Figure 3).