synthase is a key enzyme that plays an important role in the mevalonate pathway, which is responsible for cholesterol synthesis (6,7).
In addition to the effects on cholesterol biosynthesis, statins regulate the synthesis of various other major products such as dolichol, geranyl pyrophosphate, and farnesyl pyrophosphate
. These agents play important roles in cellular functions, including both DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression, and inhibition of their synthesis by statins may induce anti-tumor responses (25,26).
The attachment means 15 prenylationcarbon farnesyl pyrophosphate
, farnesyl transferase when it operates, or 20 carbon geranylogeranyl pyrophosphate (under the influence of geranylgeranyl transferase) to the cysteine in the sequence CAAX.
The relatively long duration of action of zoledronic acid is attributable to its high binding affinity for bone mineral matrix, its potent inhibition of the osteoclastic key enzyme farnesyl pyrophosphate
synthase translate and slow release from bone.
By inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, statins lower production of farnesyl pyrophosphate
and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, which are needed for posttranslational activation of Ras, Rho, and other proteins that are overexpressed in CRC and that have been linked to tumor invasion.
Studies point to the ability of bisphosphonates to inhibit the farnesyl pyrophosphate
synthase (FPPS) enzyme in the parasite's cytosol as their mechanism of activity .
Yang et al., "Inhibition of farnesyl pyrophosphate
synthase prevents norepinephrine-induced fibrotic responses in vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats," Hypertension Research, vol.
It is well known that biosynthesis of ART includes three stages, that is, the formation of farnesyl pyrophosphate
(FPP) from acetyl-CoA, the synthesis of sesquiterpene, and the formation of ART via lactonization (Figure 1).
Isoprenoids farnesyl pyrophosphate
(FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), the end products of this pathway, play fundamental role in activation of intracellular Ras and Ras related GTP binding proteins which are critical for cell signaling cascade .
chamomilla may inhibit fungal growth via specific inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis, probably by inhibiting one of the enzymes responsible for the formation of farnesyl pyrophosphate
(FPP) precursors (Arruda et al.
The reduction in mevalonate pathway intermediates by statins also prevent the synthesis of isoprenoid intermediates, farnesyl pyrophosphate
(FPP) and geranyl geranyl pyrophosphate(GGPP).
A subgroup of these agents known as aminobisphosphonates, which includes alendronate, also inhibits the osteoclastic enzyme known as farnesyl pyrophosphate
(FPP) synthase, thereby maximizing their antiresorptive potential.