Filaments are solitary or forming mats, simple not branched or very rarely laterally branched (false branching), erect, solitary or in small loose fascicles attached to substrata basally.
Trichomes are cylindrical, without sheaths or with fine facultative mucilaginous sheaths, without false branching, usually not constricted at the cross walls.
According to Gary Olsen, a specialist in nucleotide sequence analysis and a colleague of Pace at Indiana University, Lake's algorithm is likely to generate false branching
during periods of rapid evolution when "large amounts of background noise can come into play." Moreover, he says, the program appears to be comparing sequences that are not truly related.