The facial nerve plane is the most widely accepted landmark for division of the facial plane
. Superficial lobe, which makes up about 80% of the volume of the parotid gland lies above the facial nerve and the part of tissue lying below the facial nerve is referred to as the deep lobe of the parotid.
Gn (Gnathion): A bony point by bisecting the line of angle formed by the facial plane
and mandibular plane.
The article explains a method of assessing the position, visibility, dimension, and angulation of the ear of a specific facial form of an individual using facial plane
landmarks and reference plane indicator.
Problems relating to disfigurement may not simply be ocular; a deformity could possibly exist in more than one facial plane
. For example, in the case of a patient with Bells palsy, the signs can be ptosis, a facial droop with pain caused by the swelling or damage to the trigeminal nerve, headaches, or the inability to make facial expressions due to a paralysis of the facial nerve.
The angle of the AB plane to the facial plane
(-0.7[degrees]) and the interincisal angle (141.7[degrees]) were larger than the normal range of 2SD limits.
GN The intersection point of the mandibular plane and the facial plane
* Gnathion (Gn)--constructed by bisecting the facial plane
and tangent to the lower border of the mandible.
The facial plane
is constructed from new NA to PO and a facial axis from CC to Gn (where the facial plane
and mandibular plane cross) [Figure 4].
N-Pg [bar.L2L7] NA plane N-A [bar.L2L5] AB.
The petrous part of the temporal bone is pyramidal in shape and the apex has a neighbourhood with clivus and cavernous sinus.7,8 The spread of the infection can also occur by direct extensions via facial planes
, vascular channels and through bone.2,7 In cases with petrous apex syndrome, facial nerve paralysis is common and also other cranial nerve (II-X) deficits may occur because of the inflammatory process and oedema when the infection spreads to the skull base or cavernous sinus.2,7,8 While managing these syndromes, including JS, the target is underlying cause.