However, a lower facial height
and posterior facial height
were longer in male than in female subjects.
Subnasale-gnathion distance corresponds to the distance of the lower facial height
. Lower facial height
is one of the important parameters for normal anatomical structure of the oral cavity.
This is not an exact science but is a specific proportion system that includes facial height
, width, and symmetry and broadly consistent with individual's facial form, morphology and balance.
Posterior and anterior facial height
increased in both groups (p> 0.05).
Female dimensions in relation to Jarabak's norms showed considerable variances in articular angle, anterior cranial base, posterior facial height
with less significant values in Saudi females while compared with Jarabak's norms apart from mandibular body length which is more in Saudi females.
Loss of boney volume causes a decrease of the vertical dimension of the face (VDF) or facial height
. This decrease in facial height
leads to premature drooping of the soft tissues of the face.
In the examination of the front profile, lip competence, facial height
, and facial symmetry were evaluated.
The facial index was calculated by dividing the measure of the distance between the nasion (N) and pogonion (Pog) points (that represent the facial height
) by the measure of the interzygomatic distance (i.e., the facial width), multiplied by 100.
Without good control, it could lead to many debilitating mandibular fracture complications such as loss of the gonial angle, loss of posterior facial height
, condylar sag, pain, dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint, and functional impairment of mastication .
in cases where the chin is well positioned at the beginning of the treatment [1, 7], pogonion kept in the same position to increase the lower facial height
; class II division II low-angle malocclusion uncorrected by orthodontic treatment alone, especially in patients that need advancement but have an excessive mental projection ; mandibular vertical alveolar deficiency; anterior open bite; mandibular ramus sagittal split osteotomy relapse; cases of condylar agenesis and hypoplasia; lateral open bite [4, 10]; and in cases that need a profound change in the mentolabial sulcus [1, 11].
Anteroinferior facial height
was determined by the angle formed by the ANS (anterior nasal spine) plane and the Xi point (center of the mandibular ramus), and from this point a plane was traced to the point d (center of the mandibular symphysis).
The sample was divided into three groups (mesofacial, brachyfacial and dolichofacial) (Table 2) using three angular measurements (Ricketts, 1989) (Figure 1), i.e., facial axis (Ba-Na to Pt-Gn), total facial height
(Na-Ba to Ba-PM) and lower face height (ANS-Xi to Xi-PM).