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Spinal involvement occurs in up to 20% patients with IBD, with the involvement of any facet joint (1, 4).
Under C-arm fluoroscopy guidance, the specialists placed 80mm 25G Quincke spinal needles (Inter Kotra GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany) into relevant facet joints and injected 0.2 - 0.3 ml contrast media into facet joints.
Grade IV joint mobilization of the spine, performed with slow oscillations, is a form of joint stretching that is much more specifically applied so that it better targets the intrinsic fascial tissues of the facet joints of the spine at a specific level.
(1987:584) reported seven cases of spondylolysis in the L1-L3 vertebrae that "had the appearance of an additional facet joint" and were associated with superomedial extensions of bone parallel to the laminae; they also described the presence of elongated pars interarticularis and hypoplastic anomalies of the posterior arch.
The system consists of several specialized single-use instruments including a facet joint access instrument, lateral mass decortication trephine, mallet, cannula, decortication rasp, decortication burr as well as bone graft tamp.
Facet joints play a major role in flexion, extension, and rotational movements of the spine.
In contrast, with radiofrequency neurotomy, the RF needle is directed alongside the target, which often tends to be medial branch nerves, or, in rare cases, the lateral branch nerves supplying the facet joints. Lesioning of the nerve occurs via coagulative necrosis.
Risk factors include age at time of surgery (>60 years) and preexisting damage of the facet joints or intervertebral discs in the adjacent segment.
Bipolar intra-articular radiofrequency thermocoagulation of the thoracic facet joints: A case series of a new technique.