extravascular


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Related to extravascular: extravascular fluid

extravascular

 [ek″strah-vas´ku-ler]
situated or occurring outside a vessel or the vessels.

ex·tra·vas·cu·lar

(eks'tră-vas'kyū-lăr),
Outside the blood vessels or lymphatics or of any special blood vessel.

extravascular

(ĕk′strə-văs′kyə-lər)
adj.
1. Located or occurring outside a blood or lymph vessel.
2. Lacking vessels; nonvascular.

hemoglobinuria

Hematology The presence of Hb in the urine which, if of sufficient quantity, colors urine, the intensity of which directly correlates with the quantity of Hb. See Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.
hemolysis Destruction or lysis of RBCs
Hemolysis
Intracorpuscular hemolysis
•  Membrane defects, eg hereditary elliptocytosis, spherocytosis, stomatocytosis and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
•  Metabolic defects, eg G6PD, pyruvate kinase deficiency
•  Abnormal Hbs see Hemoglobin.
Extracorpuscular hemolysis
1º immune reactions, eg autoimmune hemolytic anemia
2º immune reactions, due to
• Infections, eg Bartonella, Clostridia, malaria, sepsis
• Neoplasia, eg lymphoma, leukemias
• Drug reactions due to the 'Innocent bystander' phenomenon (drug-antibody complex activates complement, causing intravascular hemolysis, eg quinidine), hapten-mediated —a protein-bound drug attaches to the red cell membrane, eliciting an immune response when the hapten-protein complex is recognized as foreign, evoking an immune response, eg penicillin acting as a hapten
• Induction of autoimmunity by RBC antigen alterations, eg Rh antigen
Physical, eg thermal, concentrated glycerol due to inadequate washing of frozen blood, bladder irrigation, cardiac valves
Extravascular Less severe, IgG-mediated and does not activate complement, eg Rh, Kell, Duffy Laboratory ↓ haptoglobin, ↓ T1/2 of circulating RBCs, ↑ indirect BR as liver capacity to conjugate BR–ergo direct BR is overwhelmed by massive hemolysis, ↑ LDH, Hb in blood and urine, hemosiderinuria, MetHb and metalbumin, ↑ urobilinogen in urine and feces, ↑ in acid phosphatase, K+, and prostatic acid phosphatase Clin Chem 1992; 38:575; peripheral smears demonstrate anisocytosis, polychromatophilia, nucleated RBCs, basophilic stippling; immune hemolysis is suggested by spherocytes NEJM 2000; 342:722cpc
Intravascular More severe, IgM-mediated and requires complement activation, eg ABO blood groups Laboratory ↑ free Hb  Note: Clinically significant hemolysis is usually detected by hemagglutination, less commonly by hemolysis per se, which detects anti-P,
-P1, -PP1Pk, -Jka, -Lea, occasionally also anti-Leb and -Vel

extravascular

Outside a blood vessel or the circulatory system.

extravascular

situated or occurring outside a vessel or the vessels.
References in periodicals archive ?
If a patient makes an IgG antibody to the drug, that antibody can bind to the drug-coated RBC and facilitate extravascular hemolysis (2).
Eurogene and Valentis have an additional collaboration underway through which Valentis has provided a proprietary DOTMA-based cationic lipid delivery system for a non-viral VEGF165 gene medicine administered via Eurogene's biodegradable extravascular delivery collar.
The clinical usefulness of extravascular lung water and pulmonary vascular permeability index to diagnose and characterize pulmonary edema: A prospective multicenter study on the quantitative differential diagnostic definition for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome.
For both methods, there is also the assumption that the extravascular water content of the myocardium and non-pulmonary vessels is insignificant in comparison to the total EVLW (48).
Disseminated intravascular coagulation, defined as capillary microthrombi occurring in 2 or more organs, occurred in twothirds of CM cases that had extravascular pathologic signs.
Most cases of PEH are of the intravascular type; extravascular PEH is rare.
Extravascular sources of septicemia--contaminated vascular-access devices (eg, arterial lines or central venous catheters), urinary catheters, or other foreign devices--can also provide ports for bacteria to exploit the oxygen and nutrient-rich environment of the circulatory system.
2] The rapid increase in intravascular volume associated with the absoption of a large amount of fluid dilutes plasma electrolytes and proteins, resulting in a decreased oncotic pressure and movement of fluids into the extravascular space (third-spacing of fluids).
Proleukin administration has been associated with capillary leak syndrome (CLS) which is characterized by a loss of vascular tone and extravasation of plasma proteins and fluid into the extravascular space.
In addition, LDL readily becomes oxidized (oxLDL) when entrapped in the extravascular space, and recent data demonstrates this negatively impacts tendon cell phenotype, altering normal gene expression.
Thus, Increasing concentration of proinflammatory cytokines, specially IL-6, in the inflammation process, inhibits albumin synthesis in the hepatocytes, as well as increases albumin catabolism and redistribution to the extravascular compartment, the end result is reduced circulatory albumin level.