For posterior uveal melanoma, T is classified based on tumor basal width and thickness (T1, T2, T3, T4) and then divided into subgroups reflecting ciliary body involvement and extrascleral extension of the tumor (a, b, c, d, e).
100) found an average recurrence rate after primary TTT in small melanoma patients of 17% (8-56%) and reported that 7% of these recurrences involved extrascleral extension.
We defined HRFs as invasion of the anterior chamber, iris, ciliary body, choroid (massive), optic nerve (postlaminar with or without the resected margin), sclera, and extrascleral soft tissue.
4% of cases with extrascleral invasion, in comparison with 1.
20) It is not recommended for very large melanomas that occupy greater than 30% of the ocular volume, extrascleral
extension, large retinal detachment or extensive neovascularisation.
extension in association with ciliochoroidal melanoma: ultrasound biomicroscopy with histopathological correlation.
11-15) The value of adjuvant therapy is clearly accepted in cases of microscopic extrascleral
disease, in involvement of the optic nerve resection line, and in subarachnoid space involvement.
1) Several histologic prognostic factors have been described for this type of cancer, such as large tumor size, involvement of the ciliary body, extrascleral extension, and an inflammatory phenotype.
41 None 3 6 3 0 Superficial 25 50 14 9 Deep 15 30 9 6 Extrascleral 7 14 3 4 TNM stage .
19) Additional clinical prognostic parameters include a larger tumor diameter, presence of extrascleral
growth, tumor margin location anterior to the equator of the eye, older age, male gender, and tumor-induced glaucoma.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and bone marrow biopsy were advised for all patients with infiltration of iris, ciliary body, choroid, optic nerve lamina cribrosa, retrolaminar optic nerve, optic nerve to the line of transection, sclera, and extrascleral
extension, if present (1) Location (2) Extent (2 dimensions) i.