extrapyramidal


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extrapyramidal

 [eks″trah-pĭ-ram´ĭ-d'l]
outside the pyramidal tracts.
extrapyramidal disease (extrapyramidal syndrome) any of a group of clinical disorders marked by abnormal involuntary movements, alterations in muscle tone, and postural disturbances; the group includes parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, and others.
extrapyramidal system a functional, rather than anatomical, unit comprising the nuclei and fibers (excluding those of the pyramidal tract) involved in motor activities; they control and coordinate especially the postural, static, supporting, and locomotor mechanisms. It includes the corpus striatum, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and red nucleus, along with their interconnections with the reticular formation, cerebellum, and cerebrum; some authorities include the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei. Called also extrapyramidal tract.

ex·tra·py·ram·i·dal

(eks'tră-pi-ram'i-dăl),
Other than the pyramidal tract. See: extrapyramidal motor system.

extrapyramidal

(ĕk′strə-pĭ-răm′ĭ-dl)
adj.
Relating to or involving neural pathways situated outside or independent of the pyramidal tracts.

extrapyramidal

adjective Referring to that which occurs outside of the pyramidal system of the brain.

ex·tra·py·ram·i·dal

(eks'tră-pir-am'i-dăl)
Outside or not involving the pyramidal tract of the central nervous system.
References in periodicals archive ?
Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) are most familiar side effect in patients treated chronically with first generation antipsychotics (FGAs).
The reasons for this preference include a low risk of extrapyramidal adverse effects, flexibility of dosing, ability to use lower dosages, and evidence of the lower risk of mortality when compared with other second-generation agents.
The main symptoms of the patients were psychomotor retardation (8/8), cerebellar ataxia (5/8), extrapyramidal symptoms (7/8), and seizures (4/8).
Individuals with DS who present with extrapyramidal symptoms may be mistaken to have psychomotor slowing due to Alzheimer's; therefore, the occurrence of parkinsonism may be underreported.
Carbidopa/levodopa was discontinued five months postoperatively, and the extrapyramidal features never recurred.
(1) Clinical features of this syndrome include high fever, extrapyramidal symptoms, and dysfunction in autonomic system such as unstable blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmia, dyspnea, sweating and urinary incontinence.
The study is among the first to examine the link between extrapyramidal signs and dementia other than Alzheimer's disease, said Woojae Myung, MD, of Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine in Seoul, South Korea, and his associates.
NBIA encompasses a group of disorders, which have some common features like presentation in paediatric or early adulthood with extrapyramidal and cerebellar signs and corresponding abnormalities in the basal ganglia and cerebellum on neuroimaging, clinically heterogeneous, refractory to therapy, relentlessly progressive and inevitably fatal.
- Sections on cerebellar degeneration and dysfunction, motor neuron disorders, post-traumatic cognitive disorders, dementia with extrapyramidal syndromes, and deep brain stimulation
(1) The typical clinical manifestation of ADCA type I is cerebellar ataxia with ophthalmoplegia, dementia, extrapyramidal and pyramidal signs.
Atypical antipsychotics have fewer extrapyramidal side effects because of a weak dopamine D2 receptor binding affinity or a strong antagonistic effect on serotonin 5-HT2a receptor (6).
Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) observed during the 6-week LATUDA monotherapy study included akathisia (noted for 8%, 11%, and 2% of patients in the LATUDA 20-60 mg, LATUDA 80-120 mg, and placebo groups, respectively), dystonia (0%, 2%, and 0%), parkinsonism (5%, 8%, and 2%), and restlessness (0%, 3%, and <1%).