A total of 177 bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary and/or extrapulmonary TB
patients were enrolled in the study.
In this study, we employed an adult Chinese patient population to validate whether NanoDisk-MS assay results correlated with clinical diagnoses, outperformed culture and histology tests used to diagnose active TB in adults, and revealed differential clinical sensitivity for pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB
cases or Mtb culture-positive and culture-negative TB cases.
However, in the absence of data from children, those estimates assume a similar CDR for adults (8) or impute missing data based on reported proportions of smear-negative and extrapulmonary TB
by age group (7), assumptions that have been challenged (11,45).
Although genitourinary TB is not an uncommon manifestation of extrapulmonary TB
, physicians in countries of low TB prevalence may not consider it in the differential diagnosis of a young male presenting with chronic or recurrent orchiepididymitis.
 Extrapulmonary TB
(EPTB), which is also a risk factor for unfavourable outcome, is 20-70% more common in HIV-positive patients.
It not only typically affects lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect other organs (extrapulmonary TB
In 2014, extrapulmonary TB
constituted 20.57% of TB cases reported to the CDC and continues to be a missed diagnosis for providers not considering TB in their differential diagnoses .
Characteristics TB drug-sensitive, TB drug-resistant, n = 160 n = 13 Previous treatment for TB 6 (3.8) 4 (30.8) Pulmonary TB 95 (59.4) 8 (61.5) Extrapulmonary TB
52 (32.5) 4 (30.8) Disseminated TB 13 (8.1) 1 (7.7) HIV positive 11 (6.9) 1 (7.7) DM 25 (15.6) 2 (15.4) On immunosuppressive drugs 11 (6.9) 2 (15.4) Characteristics OR 95% CI p-value Previous treatment for TB 11.41 2.72-47.79 0.001 Pulmonary TB 1.09 0.34-3.50 0.990 Extrapulmonary TB
0.92 0.27-3.14 0.900 Disseminated TB 0.94 0.11-7.83 0.960 HIV positive 1.13 0.13-9.50 0.910 DM 1.02 0.21-4.88 0.980 On immunosuppressive drugs 2.46 0.48-12.52 0.260 Data is given as n (%).
Obtain sputum samples for all patients with extrapulmonary TB
Similar results were reported by Leeds et al; (8) they concluded that patients with CD4 cell counts <100 were more likely to have severe forms of extrapulmonary TB
(central nervous system, meningeal, and/or disseminated).
Pulmonary TB is the most frequent type in children as in adults, and extrapulmonary TB
constitutes just 20% of all childhood TB cases.2 Cutaneous tuberculosis (CT) constitutes approximately 1.5% of all extrapulmonary TB
cases in childhood.3 CT is often seen with malnutrition, low socioeconomic environments, and in crowded societies.
The proportion of smear-negative pulmonary TB(PTB) and extrapulmonary TB
is higher among HIV co-infected TB patients.14