For Kopp (1989), emotional regulation consists of intra and extrapsychic
factors, which guarantee the confrontation, redefinition, control, modification or modulation of the affective activity, to ensure the adaptive functioning of the person.
Graduate students, like all members of subordinate social groups, feel they have few rights as they struggle to meet their own educational challenges, emotional needs, and reactions to the extrapsychic
factors that adversely affect their progress through their academic programs (Humble et al.
Perceptions of intrapsychic and extrapsychic
functioning as bases of adolescent ego identity statuses.
Nevertheless, many practitioners assert that, with specific cultural modifications that take into account the extrapsychic
, pragmatic, and rational orientation of many Chinese clients, psychodynamic and psychoanalytic approaches may be effectively applied (Wu, 1994; Yi, 1995).
Thus, both intra- and extrapsychic
factors are crucial here.
Counseling strategies are often, although in a somewhat arbitrary manner, divided into intrapsychic (intrapersonal) and extrapsychic
(interpersonal) forms of intervention (Shepperson Mauger & Zinober, 1975).
Bradley's presidential theme reflects a growing movement to expand the practice of counseling from its traditional focus on the intrapsychic concerns of clients to a broader focus on the many extrapsychic
forces that adversely affect the emotional and physical well-being of people.