If any portion of the tube projects outside the pleural space distal to the pleural entry site, the entire tube is extrapleural
Experts will discuss methods of surgical removal including the shift from Extrapleural
Pneumonectomy (EPP) to lung-sparing procedures at some of the most prominent centers in the world, as well as the findings from the Surgery for Mesothelioma After Radiation Therapy (SMART) trial.
1) The presence of these tumors has also been reported in a number of extrapleural
sites such as the lung, mediastinum, and meninges.
3] However, it is not anatomically restricted to the chest cavity and has been described in various extrapleural
sites, such as upper respiratory system, lung, liver, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, mammary glands, orbita, mediastinum, greater salivary glands, meninges, and even the kidney.
Main considerations in the differential diagnosis of EMH are tumours of the posterior mediastinum, including neurogenic masses, lymphoma, paravertebral abscesses, extrapleural
cysts, lateral meningoceles, mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia, and primary and metastatic malignant neoplasms.
The treatment available includes surgey, pleurectomy/decortication, extrapleural
pneumonectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Walter Kirchner, a surgeon from St Louis, successfully repaired a stab to the left ventricle using an extrapleural
approach via a left sternal flap.
The invasive malignant cells are often deceptively bland, resembling fibroblasts, and pancytokeratin staining is invaluable in highlighting the presence of cytokeratin-positive malignant cells in regions where they should not normally be present: in the connective tissue, adipose tissue, or skeletal muscle deep to the parietal pleura, or invading the visceral pleura and lung tissue (or other extrapleural
structures present in the sample) (Figure 5, A and B).
Regional analgesic techniques used for children post-thoracotomy to reduce or avoid postoperative opioids previously described include an extrapleural
technique for TOFOA surgery (1) and extrapleural
(2-5), interpleural (6-10) and epidural (11) local anaesthetic infusion.
The surgical interventions include pleurodesis, parietal pleurectomy, and extrapleural
Various techniques for LITA harvesting were described by several surgeons and extrapleural
internal thoracic artery (ITA) harvesting is one of these methods.
Influence of Talc Dose on Extrapleural
Talc Dissemination after Talc Pleurodesis.