As a rule, at least 1 microscopic slide containing placenta, umbilical cord, and extraplacental
membranes was examined.
Keelan, "Cytokines of the placenta and extraplacental
membranes: biosynthesis, secretion and roles in establishment of pregnancy in women," Placenta, vol.
(12) Bacterial infection of the chorioamnion, or extraplacental
membrane, may lead to chorioamnionitis, a condition strongly associated with premature membrane rupture and preterm delivery.
Part one provides an overview of gross and microscopic changes, with coverage of the umbilical cord, extraplacental
membranes, the chorionic plate, and other subjects.
(2,3) Available evidence suggest that bacterial infection of the chorioamnion, or extraplacental
membrane, may lead to chorioamnion it is, a condition strongly associated with premature rupture of membranes and preterm delivery.
The amnion and chorion obtained from the extraplacental
membranes (reflected membranes) were separated by blunt dissection under sterile conditions.
Because PTGS2 is necessary for synthesis of prostaglandins, phthalate-stimulated induction of PTGS2 in gestational tissues such as placenta and the extraplacental
membranes could increase risk for preterm birth by increasing premature intrauterine production of prostaglandins.
Substantial Zika viral loads were identified in the placenta, extraplacental membranes, and umbilical cord with quantitative RT-PCR.
The umbilical cord and extraplacental membranes were normal for gestational age--there was no funisitis or chorioamnionitis.
Placental Weight.--Description of the placenta should include the placental weight trimmed of extraplacental membranes and umbilical cord, and notation of whether the placenta was fresh or fixed when measured.
Sampling of Cord, Membranes, and Placental Disk.--Submit 4 blocks as a minimum: 1 block to include a roll of the extraplacental membranes from the rupture edge to the placental margin, including part of the marginal parenchyma; and 2 cross sections of the umbilical cord, one from the fetal end and another approximately 5 cm from the placental insertion end.