A sub-muscular extraperiosteal
tunnel is prepared between the Brachialis muscle and the underlying periosteum with a narrow periosteal elevator or Cobbs elevator inserted first from proximal incision distally and then from distal incision proximally.
calcification and ossification could be detected during the development of severe skeletal fluorosis (2).
plating of pronation-abduction ankle fractures.
Closed nailing causes no damage to extraperiosteal soft tissues and the biological environment around the fracture is least disturbed.
Closed nailing technique is preferred because no damage to extraperiosteal soft tissue occurs and the biological environment around the fracture is minimally disturbed.
(47) The subperiosteal resection was later altered to extraperiosteal
removal of the distal ulna to prevent regeneration of the distal ulna.
Hence, patients were planned to undergo modified fibular resection for symptomatic proximal fibular osteochondroma as described by Mootha AK et al  and extraperiosteal
excision of remaining symptomatic osteochondromas in October 2015.