Outside the mitochondria.
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Accordingly, data here showed that long-term ethanol treatment affects renal extramitochondrial metabolism in a similar way to that of the liver (Fernandez et al., 1998).
With respect to current theories concerning how such anesthetic drugs can produce neuroapoptosis during synaptogenesis, it is known to involve the translocation of Bax protein to mitochondrial membranes, where it disrupts membrane permeability, allowing extramitochondrial leakage of cytochrome c, followed by a sequence of changes culminating in activation of caspase-3 [43].
The main extramitochondrial sources are endoplasmic reticulum (ER), peroxisomes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), and xanthine oxidase [44, 47].
Chefurka, "Extramitochondrial release of hydrogen peroxide from insect and mouse liver mitochondria using the respiratory inhibitors phosphine, myxothiazol, and antimycin and spectral analysis of inhibited cytochromes," Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol.
Kadenbach, "Extramitochondrial ATP/ ADP-ratios regulate cytochrome c oxidase activity via binding to the cytosolic domain of subunit IV," Biological Chemistry, vol.
In contrast, the result of MDA-MB-231, which was in an argument with the observation of caspase-9 activity, demonstrated that FAA lead to Bcl-2 downregulation, without impairing the mitochondrial functions which confirm the extramitochondrial roles of Bcl-2.
Laun et al., "Yno1p/Aim14p, a NADPH-oxidase ortholog, controls extramitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, apoptosis, and actin cable formation in yeast," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, vol.
GSH has multiple functions such as [1] participating directly in the neutralization of free radicals and reactive oxygen compounds, as well as maintaining exogenous antioxidants such as Vitamins C and E in their active forms, [2] used in metabolic and biochemical reactions such as DNA synthesis and repair, protein synthesis, prostaglandin synthesis, amino acid transport, and enzyme activation for the purpose in the immune system, the nervous system, the gastrointestinal system, and the lungs, and also [3] vital function in iron metabolism, for example, the yeast cells depleted of or containing toxic levels of GSH show an intense iron starvation-like-response and impairment of the activity of extramitochondrial ISC enzymes.
2002), cytochrome c release requires a two-step process: first, cytochrome c disrupted from its association with cardiolipin to generate a soluble pool; afterward, the outer membrane was permeabilized with Bax; finally, the protein extruded into the extramitochondrial environment.
Skeletal muscle of OVX mice shows lower use of palmitoylcarnitine and glycerol-phosphate substrates, decreased PGC1[alpha] expression, reduced mitochondrial content, and increased compensatory extramitochondrial ATP synthesis during exercise, most of which could be reverted by E2 treatment [71].
The local ischemia that results from the formation of a myofascial trigger point will result in a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in extramitochondrial proton concentration (decreased pH) [108,109].
Lipton, "Mitochondrial and extramitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathways in cerebrocortical neurons," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.