extramitochondrial

ex·tra·mi·to·chon·dri·al

(eks'tră-mī'tō-kon'drē-ăl),
Outside the mitochondria.
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GSH has multiple functions such as [1] participating directly in the neutralization of free radicals and reactive oxygen compounds, as well as maintaining exogenous antioxidants such as Vitamins C and E in their active forms, [2] used in metabolic and biochemical reactions such as DNA synthesis and repair, protein synthesis, prostaglandin synthesis, amino acid transport, and enzyme activation for the purpose in the immune system, the nervous system, the gastrointestinal system, and the lungs, and also [3] vital function in iron metabolism, for example, the yeast cells depleted of or containing toxic levels of GSH show an intense iron starvation-like-response and impairment of the activity of extramitochondrial ISC enzymes.
Granzyme B of cytotoxic T cells induces extramitochondrial reactive oxygen species production via caspase-dependent NADPH oxidase activation," Immunology and Cell Biology, vol.
2002), cytochrome c release requires a two-step process: first, cytochrome c disrupted from its association with cardiolipin to generate a soluble pool; afterward, the outer membrane was permeabilized with Bax; finally, the protein extruded into the extramitochondrial environment.
The local ischemia that results from the formation of a myofascial trigger point will result in a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in extramitochondrial proton concentration (decreased pH) [108,109].
2000; Lewis and Neelakantan, 1965) which is a competitive inhibitor of ATP-citrate- lyase, a cytosolic enzyme that catalyses the extramitochondrial cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA (Sullivan et al.
The regulation of extramitochondrial free calcium ion concentration by rat liver mitochondria.
Evidence against the regulation of respiration by extramitochondrial phosphorylation potentials or by |ATP|/|ADP| ratios.
The role of adenine-nucleotide translocator and extramitochondrial reactions.
Effects of chronic ethanol consumption on extramitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and ethanol metabolism by rat kidney.
Interdependence of mitochondrial ATP production and extramitochondrial ATP utilization in intact spermatozoa.
These features are indicative of extramitochondrial polysomes enclosed by a plasma membrane.