Furthermore, NTERA-2 cells differentiate into nonneural epithelial cells when treated with bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), whereas 27X-1 cells, another human ECC line, differentiate into extraembryonic
endoderm when exposed to BMP-2 or RA [68, 69].
Most of the developed protocols for the in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells are based on the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the commitment and differentiation of early embryonic and extraembryonic
cells during development.
Toyoda et al., "'Working' cardiomyocytes exhibiting plateau action potentials from human placenta-derived extraembryonic
mesodermal cells," Experimental Cell Research, vol.
Woodbury, "Fetal stem cells from extraembryonic
tissues: do not discard," Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol.
The cells can develop into all fetal cell types, but not into extraembryonic
tissues, such as the placenta.
Therefore, the mature placental barrier will comprise the following components: syncytiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast, extraembryonic
mesoderm, and the endothelial lining of the chorionic vessels (Sadler; Huppertz; Prieto Gomez et al., 2011; Roa et al.; Carlson).
Upon reaching an adequate stage, the embryos were extracted in PBS/DEPC (phosphate-buffered saline/diethylpyrocarbonate) to remove the extraembryonic
membranes and were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) overnight at 4[degrees]C (6-12 hours).
Temporal and regional changes in DNA methylation in the embryonic, extraembryonic
and germ cell lineages during mouse embryo development.
These tumors have a very complex endodermal morphology with components of both embryonic and extraembryonic
Transcription Embryonic Dysfunction/impact/alterations factor day (ehand/Hand1/ e7.5-9.5 Embryonic death in Hand1 null mice dHAND/HAND) due to defects in the extraembryonic
mesoderm and the yolk sac, followed by cardiac development arrest.
Li, "In Vitro and in Vivo Hepatic Differentiation of Adult Somatic Stem Cells and Extraembryonic
Stem Cells for Treating End Stage Liver Diseases," Stem Cells International, vol.
Guillot, "Biological characteristics of stem cells from foetal, cord blood and extraembryonic
tissues," Journal of the Royal Society Interface, vol.