extradural haemorrhage

epidural hemorrhage

Haemorrhage into the epidural space, which occurs in 10% of patients with severe head trauma; 80% are associated with skull fractures, especially of the temporal bone; many of these disrupt the middle meningeal artery, veins, dural-venous sinuses, and skull vessels.

Clinical findings
Continued bleeding causes intracranial hypertension, uncal herniation and, if untreated, death.

ex·tra·du·ral hem·or·rhage

(eks'tră-dūr'ăl hem'ŏr-ăj)
An accumulation of blood between the skull and the dura mater.
Synonym(s): epidural hematoma, extradural haemorrhage.

extradural haemorrhage

Bleeding between the skull and the outer layer of brain lining (the dura mater). This usually results from a skull fracture, is often slow and insidious, and is very dangerous. A person who recovers consciousness after a head injury and then lapses once again into coma, probably has an extradural haemorrhage and is likely to be in grave danger.

ex·tra·du·ral hem·or·rhage

(eks'tră-dūr'ăl hem'ŏr-ăj)
Extravasation of blood between cranium and dura mater.
Synonym(s): extradural haemorrhage.
References in periodicals archive ?
This is a prospective observational study, which included 100 patients admitted in Government Medical College over the past two years (01/06/2016 to 30/06/2018) with head injury, diagnosed to have traumatic extradural haemorrhage.
1) was intracerebral contusion (this is a broad term and includes the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital contusions) (13.0%, n=92), depressed skull fracture (11.7%, n=70), sub-arachnoid haemorrhage (10.4%, n=60), extradural haemorrhage (6.5%, n=41), intracranial haemorrhage (3.4%, n=19), free air (2.9%, n=19), subdural haemorrhage (1.5%, n=13), intraventricular haemorrhage (1.1%, n=9).
In some studies [7,14], incidence of subdural haemorrhage (SDH) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) was maximum in the victims of RTAs while extradural haemorrhage (EDH) was observed in the least, while in our study EDH was the most common finding.
He also recognised the lucid period that may precede the coma of an extradural haemorrhage and advised the use of the skull trephine in such cases, as is taught in modern neurosurgery, when an accumulation of blood beneath the skull is suspected.
The other pathologies (subarachnoid, subdural and extradural haemorrhage, and base of skull fractures) occurred at a remarkably lower rate.
The anatomic location of the pterion therefore is important in surgical interventions following extradural haemorrhage as well as tumors involving inferior aspects of the frontal lobe, such as olfactory meningiomas (Spektor et al., 2005).
The cause of death was extradural haemorrhage and blunt-force head injury, an inquest found.
Of the 47 cases of bony fracture, most of the cases were subtle linear fracture without obvious extradural haemorrhage; however, 10 cases of internal bleeding were associated with bony fracture.
Khajuria et al also noticed the similar findings; Subdural Haemorrhage 79.31%, Subarachnoid Haemorrhage 63.33%, Extradural Haemorrhage 48.85%, Intra-cranial injuries 21.26%, and Contusion 35.63% of the victims.
The latter would have included relief of subdural and extradural haemorrhage; if so, it required considerable diagnostic and clinical skill.
For example, he described that most important sign in head injuries: that the pupil of the eye dilates on the side of cerebral compression, for example, in a case of extradural haemorrhage ('Hutchinson's pupil').
Home Office pathologist, Dr Edmund Tapp, told the court that Mr Hall - who was 5ft 6ins tall - died of an extradural haemorrhage after suffering a skull fracture caused by a blunt force impact.